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Variations in recorded acoustic gunshot waveforms generated by small firearms
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10.1121/1.3557045
/content/asa/journal/jasa/129/4/10.1121/1.3557045
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/asa/journal/jasa/129/4/10.1121/1.3557045

Figures

Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

(Color online) Variations in acoustic waveforms from a revolver firing a supersonic round—the microphone at (a) records the cylinder blast followed by the muzzle blast but no ballistic shockwave; the microphone at (b) records the muzzle blast but the cylinder blast and the ballistic shockwave are not distinguishable; and the microphone at (c) records the ballistic shockwave followed by the muzzle blast but the cylinder blast is not distinguishable.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

(Color online)High speed photograph of a revolver showing gas explosions from the cylinder gap and the muzzle (photograph provided courtesy of the FBI).

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

The Friedlander model for an ideal small firearm muzzle blast and its analytic Fourier spectrum.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

Angular model of the muzzle blast peak overpressure and the peak overpressures from two calibrated recordings made at multiple angles with respect to the line of fire.

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

(Color online) Data collection layout showing different microphone configurations and a photograph of configuration #3.

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

Simultaneous recordings of waveforms from multiple distances along the 90° azimuth angle for a Smith&Wesson model 10 .38 caliber revolver with a 2.5 in. barrel.

Image of FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

Simultaneous recordings of waveforms from multiple distances along the 90° azimuth angle for a Smith&Wesson model 10.38 caliber revolver with a 4 in. barrel. The longer barrel revolver has greater separation between the cylinder blast and the muzzle blast.

Image of FIG. 8.
FIG. 8.

(Color online) Simultaneous recordings of waveforms from multiple azimuth angles (3°–180°) at a distance of 30 m for a Smith&Wesson model 10.38 caliber revolver with a 2.5 in. barrel.

Image of FIG. 9.
FIG. 9.

Recordings of waveforms from multiple azimuth angles (3°–90°) at a distance of 30 m for two different Smith&Wesson revolver models.

Image of FIG. 10.
FIG. 10.

Recordings of waveforms from multiple azimuth angles (3°–90°) at a distance of 30 m for a revolver and a semi-automatic pistol.

Image of FIG. 11.
FIG. 11.

Recordings of waveforms from multiple azimuth angles (3°–90°) at a distance of 30 m for a revolver firing two different bullet weights.

Image of FIG. 12.
FIG. 12.

Correlation results between gunshot waveforms recorded from multiple shots, different azimuth angles, different source-to-microphone distances, and different firearms.

Tables

Generic image for table
TABLE I.

Recording configurations for different source-to-microphone distances (range) and different microphone location azimuth angles relative to the line-of-fire.

Generic image for table
TABLE II.

Different firearms and ammunition types used in the data collection along with measured values of bullet speed and calculated values of peak SPL.

Generic image for table
TABLE III.

Correlation coefficients comparing acoustic gunshot waveforms recorded from different firearm conditions and at multiple azimuth angles (at a distance of 3 m).

Generic image for table
TABLE IV.

Estimated muzzle blast exponential decay parameter b for different firearms recorded at multiple microphone azimuth angles (at a distance of 3 m).

Generic image for table
TABLE V.

Estimated muzzle blast positive phase duration parameter T 0 in milliseconds for different firearms recorded at multiple microphone azimuth angles (at a distance of 3 m).

Generic image for table
TABLE VI.

Measured/estimated muzzle blast spectrum peak frequencies in hertz for different firearms recorded at multiple microphone azimuth angles (at a distance of 3 m).

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/content/asa/journal/jasa/129/4/10.1121/1.3557045
2011-04-08
2014-04-24
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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Variations in recorded acoustic gunshot waveforms generated by small firearms
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/asa/journal/jasa/129/4/10.1121/1.3557045
10.1121/1.3557045
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