Index of content:
Volume 129, Issue 4, April 2011
- ACOUSTIC SIGNAL PROCESSING 
129(2011); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3533721View Description Hide Description
Signal processing and communication in acoustic particle velocity channels using vector sensors are of interest in the underwater medium. Due to the presence of multiple propagation paths, a mobile receiver collects the signal with different delays and Doppler shifts. This introduces certain delay and Doppler spreads in particle velocity channels. In this paper, these channel spreads are characterized using the zero-crossing rates of channel responses in frequency and time domain. Useful expressions for delay and Doppler spreads are derived in terms of the key channel parameters mean angle of arrival and angle spread. These results are needed for design and performance prediction of systems that utilize underwater acoustic particle velocity and pressure channels.
129(2011); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3557048View Description Hide Description
A set of measures of coherence are defined and applied to the CALOPS experiment, conducted off the coast of Florida in the summer of 2007. A set of narrowband CW tones were transmitted from a towed source received on a 118-element bottom mounted horizontal line array (206 m aperture) with broadside oriented along the 250 m isobath. Two coherence measures are based upon the eigenvalue spread: the power factor and the eigenvalue ratio. This approach is not sensitive to array element error or model mismatch. Two measures are based upon phase residuals; these include the rms-phase error and the coherence function. Three measures are based upon power responses: beam width, array signal gain degradation, and array gain. These approaches have varying sensitivity to array location errors, model mismatch, signal-to-noise ratio, and the structure of the noise field. A Gaussian noise model is used to infer a coherence length from most of the coherence measures. The primary result is that coherence lengths increase with frequency and are on the order of 200 m, the length of the array. The frequency increased coherence length with frequency goes against conventional wisdom, which is to define the coherence length as a fixed number of wavelengths.
Beamforming for directional sources: Additional estimator and evaluation of performance under different acoustic scenarios129(2011); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3557055View Description Hide Description
Beamforming is done with an array of sensors to achieve a directional or spatially-specific response by using a model of the arriving wavefront. Conventionally, a plane wave or point sourcemodel is used and this can cause decreased array gain or even total breakdown of beamforming when the source is directional. To avoid this, the authors proposed in recent work an alternative beamforming method which defines a set of “sub-beamformers,” each designed to respond to a different spatial mode of the source. The outputs of the individual sub-beamformers are combined in a weighted sum to give an overall output of better quality than that of a monopole beamformer. This paper extends the previous work by introducing an additional estimator for the weighted sum and by presenting simulation results to demonstrate the relative performance of the proposed method and the different estimators for a directional source in the presence of diffuse noise, reverberation, and an interfering source. Gain optimization subject to a constraint on the white-noise gain with the proposed beamforming method is also introduced. Generally, when beamforming on directional sources, the proposed method outperforms beamforming with a point sourcemodel when the input signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is 0 dB or higher.
129(2011); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3557053View Description Hide Description
The concept of a propagator is central to the angular spectrum formulation of diffraction theory, which expresses the pressure field diffracted by a two-dimensional aperture as a superposition of a continuum of plane waves. In the conventional form, an exponential term, known as a propagator, is multiplied by the wavenumber spectrum obtained from a two-dimensional spatialFourier transform of the aperture boundary condition, to obtain the wavenumber spectrum in a plane parallel to the boundary, offset by some distance specified in the propagator. By repeated use of this propagator and Fourier inversion, it is possible to completely construct the homogeneous part of the pressure field in the positive half-space beyond the planar boundary containing the aperture. Drawing upon preceding work relating the boundary condition to the axial pressure [Pees, J. Acoust. Soc. Am.127(3), 1381–1390 (2010)], it is shown in this article that when the aperture is axially symmetric, an alternative type of propagator can be derived that propagates an axial wavenumber spectrum away from the axis of the aperture. Use of this radial propagator can be computationally advantageous since it allows for field construction using one-dimensional Fourier transforms instead of Hankel transforms or two-dimensional Fourier transforms.
129(2011); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3557031View Description Hide Description
Approximately a quarter of all West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) mortalities are attributed to collisions with watercraft. A boater warning system based on the passive acoustic detection of manateevocalizations is one possible solution to reduce manatee–watercraft collisions. The success of such a warning system depends on effective enhancement of the vocalization signals in the presence of high levels of background noise, in particular, noise emitted from watercraft. Recent research has indicated that wavelet domain pre-processing of the noisy vocalizations is capable of significantly improving the detection ranges of passive acoustic vocalizationdetectors. In this paper, an adaptive denoising procedure, implemented on the wavelet packet transform coefficients obtained from the noisy vocalization signals, is investigated. The proposed denoising algorithm is shown to improve the manateedetection ranges by a factor ranging from two (minimum) to sixteen (maximum) compared to high-pass filtering alone, when evaluated using real manateevocalization and background noise signals of varying signal-to-noise ratios (SNR). Furthermore, the proposed method is also shown to outperform a previously suggested feedback adaptive line enhancer (FALE) filter on average 3.4 dB in terms of noise suppression and 0.6 dB in terms of waveform preservation.