Volume 129, Issue 4, April 2011
Index of content:
- ARCHITECTURAL ACOUSTICS 
129(2011); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3557029View Description Hide Description
Through experiments and simulations, the consequences of symmetry on coherent backscattering enhancement (CBE) are studied in cavities. Three main results are highlighted. First, the CBE outside the source is observed: (a) on a single symmetric point in a one-dimensional (1-D) cavity, in a disk and in a symmetric chaotic plate; (b) on three symmetric points in a two-dimensional (2-D) rectangle; and (c) on seven symmetric points in a three-dimensional (3-D) parallelepiped cavity. Second, the existence of enhanced intensity lines and planes in 2-D and 3-D simple-shape cavities is demonstrated. Third, it is shown how the anti-symmetry caused by the special boundary conditions is responsible for the existence of a coherent backscattering decrement with a dimensional dependence of , with as the dimensionality of the cavity.
129(2011); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3553223View Description Hide Description
Different non-exponential decays such as the concave and the convex double sloped decays in the coupled rooms provide distinct sound qualities. These are commonly considered to occur in the less reverberant sub-room and the more reverberant sub-room, respectively. However, numerical simulations and experiments in this paper show that the demarcation line is not located along the physical boundaries (e.g., the partition and the coupling aperture), but in the more reverberant sub-room. The sound field with the concave double sloped decay penetrates into the auxiliary sub-room to an extent which is influenced by the difference between the two natural reverberations of the sub-rooms. Furthermore the sound energy flows in different regions are investigated, demonstrating how energy feedback leads to the concave double sloped decay.
129(2011); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3552881View Description Hide Description
Talkers adjust their vocal effort to communicate at different distances, aiming to compensate for the sound propagation losses. The present paper studies the influence of four acoustically different rooms on the speech produced by 13 male talkers addressing a listener at four distances. Talkers raised their vocal intensity by between 1.3 and 2.2 dB per double distance to the listener and lowered it as a linear function of the quantity “room gain” at a rate of −3.6 dB/dB. There were also significant variations in the mean fundamental frequency, both across distance (3.8 Hz per double distance) and among environments (4.3 Hz), and in the long-term standard deviation of the fundamental frequency among rooms (4 Hz). In the most uncomfortable rooms to speak in, talkers prolonged the voiced segments of the speech they produced, either as a side-effect of increased vocal intensity or in order to compensate for a decrease in speech intelligibility.
Virtual sensors for active noise control in acoustic-structural coupled enclosures using structural sensing: Part II—Optimization of structural sensor placement129(2011); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3552873View Description Hide Description
The work proposed an optimization approach for structural sensor placement to improve the performance of vibro-acoustic virtual sensor for active noise control applications. The vibro-acoustic virtual sensor was designed to estimate the interior sound pressure of an acoustic-structural coupled enclosure using structural sensors. A spectral-spatial performance metric was proposed, which was used to quantify the averaged structural sensor output energy of a vibro-acoustic system excited by a spatially varying point source. It was shown that (i) the overall virtual sensing error energy was contributed additively by the modal virtual sensing error and the measurementnoise energy; (ii) each of the modal virtual sensing error system was contributed by both the modal observability levels for the structural sensing and the target acoustic virtual sensing; and further (iii) the strength of each modal observability level was influenced by the modal coupling and resonance frequencies of the associated uncoupled structural/cavity modes. An optimal design of structural sensor placement was proposed to achieve sufficiently high modal observability levels for certain important panel- and cavity-controlled modes. Numerical analysis on a panel-cavity system demonstrated the importance of structural sensor placement on virtual sensing and active noise control performance, particularly for cavity-controlled modes.
129(2011); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3552867View Description Hide Description
This paper discusses the prediction of verbal-communication quality in eating establishments (EEs). EEs contain talkers and listeners who require high speech intelligibility at their tables, and high speech privacy between tables. Using catt-Acoustic, verbal-communication quality—quantified by speech transmission index (STI)—in models of three existing EEs was predicted. Talker voice-output levels were predicted using an existing empirical model accounting for the Lombard effect. With these, catt-Acoustic predicted impulse responses, speech levels and noise levels at primary and secondary listener positions, and the corresponding STIs. The untreated EEs were first modeled for various talker and listener positions, and occupancies. Then various treated configurations, involving reduced volume, increased absorption and barriers were studied to determine the effectiveness of the treatments. The results suggest that placing barriers around tables can be an effective way to achieve good verbal-communication quality. Increasing the absorption of the room surfaces or decreasing the ceiling height to control reverberation may not be effective. However, increasing the surfaceabsorption and putting barriers around tables may achieve optimal speech conditions in EEs. Subdividing large EEs into smaller ones can also be effective.