Volume 129, Issue 4, April 2011
Index of content:
- MUSIC AND MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS 
129(2011); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3562174View Description Hide Description
An illusion is explored in which a spoken phrase is perceptually transformed to sound like song rather than speech, simply by repeating it several times over. In experiment I, subjects listened to ten presentations of the phrase and judged how it sounded on a five-point scale with endpoints marked “exactly like speech” and “exactly like singing.” The initial and final presentations of the phrase were identical. When the intervening presentations were also identical, judgments moved solidly from speech to song. However, this did not occur when the intervening phrases were transposed slightly or when the syllables were presented in jumbled orderings. In experiment II, the phrase was presented either once or ten times, and subjects repeated it back as they finally heard it. Following one presentation, the subjects repeated the phrase back as speech; however, following ten presentations they repeated it back as song. The pitch values of the subjects’ renditions following ten presentations were closer to those of the original spoken phrase than were the pitch values following a single presentation. Furthermore, the renditions following ten presentations were even closer to a hypothesized representation in terms of a simple tonal melody than they were to the original spoken phrase.
129(2011); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3552874View Description Hide Description
While vocal fold adduction is an important parameter in speech, relatively little has been known on the adjustment of the vocal fold adduction in singing. This study investigates the possibility of separate adjustments of cartilaginous and membranous vocal fold adduction in singing. Six female and seven male subjects, singers and non-singers, were asked to imitate an instructor in producing four phonation types: “aBducted falsetto” (FaB), “aDducted falsetto” (FaD), “aBducted Chest” (CaB), and “aDducted Chest” (CaD). The phonations were evaluated using videostroboscopy, videokymography (VKG), electroglottography (EGG), and audio recordings. All the subjects showed less posterior (cartilaginous) vocal fold adduction in phonation types FaB and CaB than in FaD and CaD, and less membranous vocal fold adduction (smaller closed quotient) in FaB and FaD than in CaB and CaD. The findings indicate that the exercises enabled the singers to separately manipulate (a) cartilaginous adduction and (b) membranous medialization of the glottis though vocal fold bulging. Membranous adduction (monitored via videokymographic closed quotient) was influenced by both membranous medialization and cartilaginous adduction. Individual control over these types of vocal fold adjustments allows singers to create different vocal timbres.
129(2011); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3557033View Description Hide Description
The human voice spectrum above 5 kHz receives little attention. However, there are reasons to believe that this high-frequency energy (HFE) may play a role in perceived quality of voice in singing and speech. To fulfill this role, differences in HFE must first be detectable. To determine human ability to detect differences in HFE, the levels of the 8- and 16-kHz center-frequency octave bands were individually attenuated in sustained vowelsounds produced by singers and presented to listeners. Relatively small changes in HFE were in fact detectable, suggesting that this frequency range potentially contributes to the perception of especially the singingvoice.Detection ability was greater in the 8-kHz octave than in the 16-kHz octave and varied with band energy level.