Volume 129, Issue 4, April 2011
Index of content:
- ULTRASONICS, QUANTUM ACOUSTICS, AND PHYSICAL EFFECTS OF SOUND 
Acoustic scattering by a spherical obstacle: Modification to the analytical long-wavelength solution for the zero-order coefficient129(2011); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3543967View Description Hide Description
Classical long wavelength approximate solutions to the scattering of acoustic waves by a spherical liquid particle suspended in a liquid (an emulsion) show small but significant differences from full solutions at very low kca (typically kca < 0.01) and above at kca > 0.1, where kc is the compressional wavenumber and a the particle radius. These differences may be significant in the context of dispersed particle size estimates based on compression wave attenuation measurements. This paper gives an explanation of how these differences arise from approximations based on the significance of terms in the modulus of the complex zero-order partial wave coefficient, A 0. It is proposed that a more accurate approximation results from considering the terms in the real and imaginary parts of the coefficient, separately.
Mode propagation in curved waveguides and scattering by inhomogeneities: Application to the elastodynamics of helical structures129(2011); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3559682View Description Hide Description
This paper reports on an investigation into the propagation of guided modes in curved waveguides and their scattering by inhomogeneities. In a general framework, the existence of propagation modes traveling in curved waveguides is discussed. The concept of translational invariance, intuitively used for the analysis of straight waveguides, is highlighted for curvilinear coordinate systems. Provided that the cross-section shape and medium properties do not vary along the waveguide axis, it is shown that a sufficient condition for invariance is the independence on the axial coordinate of the metric tensor. Such a condition is indeed checked by helical coordinate systems. This study then focuses on the elastodynamics of helical waveguides. Given the difficulty in achieving analytical solutions, a purely numerical approach is chosen based on the so-called semi-analytical finite element method. This method allows the computation of eigenmodes propagating in infinite waveguides. For the investigation of modal scattering by inhomogeneities, a hybrid finite element method is developed for curved waveguides. The technique consists in applying modal expansions at cross-section boundaries of the finite element model, yielding transparent boundary conditions. The final part of this paper deals with scattering results obtained in free-end helical waveguides. Two validation tests are also performed.
129(2011); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3543958View Description Hide Description
Successful ultrasonicguided wave detection of flaws at support locations relies on the ability to distinguish between the reflection produced by a simple support on an undamaged pipe and the reflection produced by pipe flaws. Consequently, it is essential to know how the reflections produced by simple supports behave; very little work has so far been reported on this subject. Through finite element simulations and experiments, this study develops a systematic understanding of how ultrasonicguided waves propagating along a pipe, in particular the T(0, 1) mode, interact with simple supports. It is shown that, unlike the T(0, 1) mode in a free pipe, the torsional mode in a supported region has a cut-off frequency, below which it will not propagate; below this frequency the T(0, 1) reflection coefficient is large, and it quickly reduces beyond the cut-off.