Volume 129, Issue 5, May 2011
Index of content:
- AEROACOUSTICS, ATMOSPHERIC SOUND 
129(2011); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3569740View Description Hide Description
Many models for the acoustical properties of rigid-porous media require knowledge of parameter values that are not available for outdoor ground surfaces. The relationship used between tortuosity and porosity for stacked spheres results in five characteristic impedance models that require not more than two adjustable parameters. These models and hard-backed-layer versions are considered further through numerical fitting of 42 short range level difference spectra measured over various ground surfaces. For all but eight sites, slit-pore, phenomenological and variable porosity models yield lower fitting errors than those given by the widely used one-parameter semi-empirical model. Data for 12 of 26 grassland sites and for three beech wood sites are fitted better by hard-backed-layer models. Parameter values obtained by fitting slit-pore and phenomenological models to data for relatively low flow resistivity grounds, such as forest floors, porous asphalt, and gravel, are consistent with values that have been obtained non-acoustically. Three impedance models yield reasonable fits to a narrow band excess attenuation spectrum measured at short range over railway ballast but, if extended reaction is taken into account, the hard-backed-layer version of the slit-pore model gives the most reasonable parameter values.
129(2011); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3569698View Description Hide Description
This paper presents experimental data concerning the flow and noise generated by a sharp-edged flat plate at low-to-moderate Reynolds number(Reynolds number based on chord of 2.0 × 105 to 5.0 × 105). The data are used to evaluate a variety of semi-empirical trailing edge noise prediction methods. All were found to under-predict noise at lower frequencies. Examination of the velocityspectra in the near wake reveals that there are energetic velocity fluctuations at low frequency about the trailing edge. A semi-empirical model of the surface pressurespectrum is derived for predicting the trailing edge noise at low-to-moderate Reynolds number.
129(2011); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3562567View Description Hide Description
The sound generated by a vortex propagating across a two-dimensional duct section with flexible walls (membranes) in an infinitely long rigid duct conveying a flow is investigated numerically using the matched asymptotic expansion technique and the potential theory. The effects of the initial vortex position, the mechanical properties of the flexible walls, and the mean flow on the sound generation are examined in detail. Results show that the presence of a vortex inside a uniform mean flow can strengthen or attenuate the sound generation, depending on the phase of the membrane vibration when the vortex starts vigorous interaction with the membranes and the strength of the mean flow. The results tend to imply that there is a higher chance of sound amplification when a vortex stream is moving closer to the lighter membrane under a relatively strong mean flow or when the mean flow is weak. The chances of sound amplification or attenuation are equal otherwise.