Volume 129, Issue 5, May 2011
Index of content:
- GENERAL LINEAR ACOUSTICS 
The reciprocity theorem for the scattered field is the progenitor of the generalized optical theorem129(2011); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3569728View Description Hide Description
By analyzing correlation-type reciprocity theorems for wavefields in perturbed media, it is shown that the correlation-type reciprocity theorem for the scattered field is the progenitor of the generalized optical theorem. This reciprocity theorem, in contrast to the generalized optical theorem, allows for inhomogeneous background properties and does not make use of a far-field condition. This theorem specializes to the generalized optical theorem when considering a finite-size scatterer embedded in a homogeneous background medium and when utilizing the far-field condition. Moreover, it is shown that the reciprocity theorem for the scattered field is responsible for the cancellation of non-physical (spurious) arrivals in seismic interferometry, and as such provides the mathematical description of such arrivals. Even though here only acoustic waves are treated, the presented treatment is not limited to such wavefields and can be generalized to general wavefields. Therefore, this work provides the framework for deriving equivalents of the generalized optical theorem for general wavefields.
A characterization of the scattered acoustic intensity field in the resonance region for simple spheres129(2011); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3559689View Description Hide Description
The properties of the scattered acoustic vector fields generated by simple spheres illuminated by monotonic continuous wave (CW) plane waves are investigated. Analytical solutions are derived from general acoustic pressurescattering models and analyzed for wave numbers in the resonance region. Of particular interest is the understanding of the characteristics of the scattered acoustic vector field in the near-to-far-field transition region. The separable active and reactive components of the acoustic intensity are used to investigate the structural features of the scattered field components. Numerical results are presented for the near and transition regions for a rigid sphere. A method of mapping nulls in the scattered intensity field components is described. The analysis is then extended to include a simple fluid-filled boundary and finally the evacuated thin-walled shell. Near field acoustic intensity field structures are compared against mechanical material properties of vacuous shells. The ability to extract scattered field features is illustrated with measurements obtained from a recent in-air experiment using an anechoic chamber and acoustic vector sensor probes to measure the scattered acoustic vector field from rigid spheres.
Fast compressional wave attenuation and dispersion due to conversion scattering into slow shear waves in randomly heterogeneous porous media129(2011); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3560918View Description Hide Description
Within the viscosity-extended Biot framework of wave propagation in porous media, the existence of a slow shear wave mode with non-vanishing velocity is predicted. It is a highly diffusive shear mode wherein the two constituent phases essentially undergo out-of-phase shear motions (slow shear wave). In order to elucidate the interaction of this wave mode with propagating wave fields in an inhomogeneous medium the process of conversion scattering from fast compressional waves into slow shear waves is analyzed using the method of statistical smoothing in randomly heterogeneous poroelastic media. The result is a complex wave number of a coherent plane compressional wave propagating in a dynamic-equivalent homogeneous medium. Analysis of the results shows that the conversion scattering process draws energy from the propagating wave and therefore leads to attenuation and phase velocity dispersion. Attenuation and dispersion characteristics are typical for a relaxation process, in this case shear stress relaxation. The mechanism of conversion scattering into the slow shear wave is associated with the development of viscous boundary layers in the transition from the viscosity-dominated to inertial regime in a macroscopically homogeneous poroelastic solid.
129(2011); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3559685View Description Hide Description
The energyvelocity and Q factor of poroelastic acoustic waves in the context of classical isotropic Biot’s theory are revisited. Special attention is paid to the high frequency regime when interphase interaction is viscoelastic. The analogy with viscoelastic behavior is emphasized in derivation of the energy balance equations which relate kinetic energy, potential energy,viscous power dissipation, and elasticenergy stored associated with each wave. These lead to exact closed form expressions for the energyvelocity and Q factor for both longitudinal and shear waves from energy principles. Most notably, the analysis of the resulting expressions reveals that the energyvelocity of both longitudinal and shear waves equals (exceeds) the corresponding phase velocity in the case of the low (full) frequency range theory, and that the exact expression for the Q factor contains an additive correction due to viscoelastic interphase interaction.