Volume 130, Issue 1, July 2011
Index of content:
- MUSIC AND MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS 
130(2011); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3596473View Description Hide Description
This study explored the relationship between music and speech by examining absolute pitch and lexical toneperception. Taiwanese-speaking musicians were asked to identify musical tones without a reference pitch and multispeaker Taiwanese level tones without acoustic cues typically present for speaker normalization. The results showed that a high percentage of the participants (65% with an exact match required and 81% with one-semitone errors allowed) possessed absolute pitch, as measured by the musical tone identification task. A negative correlation was found between occurrence of absolute pitch and age of onset of musical training, suggesting that the acquisition of absolute pitch resembles the acquisition of speech. The participants were able to identify multispeaker Taiwanese level tones with above-chance accuracy, even though the acoustic cues typically present for speaker normalization were not available in the stimuli. No correlations were found between the performance in musical tone identification and the performance in Taiwanese tone identification. Potential reasons for the lack of association between the two tasks are discussed.
130(2011); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3596471View Description Hide Description
A methodological study is presented to examine the acoustic role of the vocal tract in playing the trumpet. Preliminary results obtained for one professional player are also shown to demonstrate the effectiveness of the method. Images of the vocal tract with a resolution of 0.5 mm (2 mm in thickness) were recorded with magnetic resonance imaging to observe the tongue posture and estimate the vocal-tract area function during actual performance. The input impedance was then calculated for the player’s air column including both the supra- and subglottal tracts using an acoustic tube model including the effect of wall losses. Finally, a time-domain blowing simulation by Adachi and Sato [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 99, 1200–1209 (1996)] was performed with a model of the lips. In this simulation, the oscillating frequency of the lips was slightly affected by using different shapes of the vocal tract measured for the player. In particular, when the natural frequency of the lips was gradually increased, the transition to the higher mode occurred at different frequencies for different vocal-tract shapes. Furthermore, simulation results showed that the minimum blowing pressure required to attain the lip oscillation can be reduced by adjusting the vocal-tract shape properly.
Radiation efficiency of a guitar top plate linked with edge or corner modes and intercell cancellation130(2011); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3592235View Description Hide Description
This paper was based on a theoretical framework to determine strong and weak radiation by a guitar top plate, vibrating through deflections hard to analyze: multipolar mode shapes. The air–structure interaction was examined in terms of edge modes or corner modes, and considering even or odd number modes. A numerical model was implemented and experimentally calibrated, exhibiting several advantages exploring the coupling between vibratory and acoustic waves in a top plate. Two analyses were applied detecting high or low radiation efficiency for the structure. First, the addition of volume velocity for odd numbers of poles and cancellation for even numbers were examined. In fact, both behaviors can happen at the same time, as it was shown for a corner radiator case used as an example. Second, the ratio between bending and acoustic wavenumbers was explored. To illustrate the importance of this ratio, some theoretical features of a more efficient radiator than the corner mode were exposed in an edge mode example. Labeling multipolar mode shapes as efficient or inefficient radiators showed to be a useful alternative analyzing the top plate behavior. It can be applied knowing the nodal lines of the vibration pattern and estimating the bending and acoustic wavelengths.