Volume 130, Issue 1, July 2011
Index of content:
- SPEECH PRODUCTION 
A theoretical model of the pressure field arising from asymmetric intraglottal flows applied to a two-mass model of the vocal folds130(2011); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3586785View Description Hide Description
A theoretical flow solution is presented for predicting the pressure distribution along the vocal fold walls arising from asymmetric flow that forms during the closing phases of speech. The resultant wall jet was analyzed using boundary layer methods in a non-inertial reference frame attached to the moving wall. A solution for the near-wall velocity profiles on the flow wall was developed based on a Falkner-Skan similarity solution and it was demonstrated that the pressure distribution along the flow wall is imposed by the velocity in the inviscid core of the wall jet. The method was validated with experimental velocity data from 7.5 times life-size vocal foldmodels, acquired for varying flow rates and glottal divergence angles. The solution for the asymmetric pressures was incorporated into a widely used two-mass model of vocal fold oscillation with a coupled acoustical model of sound propagation. Asymmetric pressure loading was found to facilitate glottal closure, which yielded only slightly higher values of maximum flow declination rate and radiated sound, and a small decrease in the slope of the spectral tilt. While the impact on symmetrically tensioned vocal folds was small, results indicate the effect becomes more significant for asymmetrically tensioned vocal folds.
Direct-numerical simulation of the glottal jet and vocal-fold dynamics in a three-dimensional laryngeal model130(2011); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3592216View Description Hide Description
An immersed-boundary method based flow solver coupled with a finite-element solid dynamics solver is employed in order to conduct direct-numerical simulations of phonatory dynamics in a three-dimensional model of the human larynx. The computed features of the glottalflow including mean and peak flow rates, and the open and skewness quotients are found to be within the normal physiological range. The flow-induced vibration pattern shows the classical “convergent-divergent” glottal shape, and the vibration amplitude is also found to be typical for human phonation. The vocal fold motion is analyzed through the method of empirical eigenfunctions and this analysis indicates a 1:1 modal entrainment between the “adduction-abduction” mode and the “mucosal wave” mode. The glottal jet is found to exhibit noticeable cycle-to-cycle asymmetric deflections and the mechanism underlying this phenomenon is examined.
130(2011); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3592242View Description Hide Description
This paper examines four acoustic properties (duration F0, F1, and F2) of the monophthongal vowels of Iberian Spanish (IS) from Madrid and Peruvian Spanish (PS) from Lima in various consonantal contexts (/s/, /f/, /t/, /p/, and /k/) and in various phrasal contexts (in isolated words and sentence-internally). Acoustic measurements on 39 speakers, balanced by dialect and gender, can be generalized to the following differences between the two dialects. The vowel /a/ has a lower first formant in PS than in IS by 6.3%. The vowels /e/ and /o/ have more peripheral second-formant (F2) values in PS than in IS by about 4%. The consonant /s/ causes more centralization of the F2 of neighboring vowels in IS than in PS. No dialectal differences are found for the effect of phrasal context. Next to the between-dialect differences in the vowels, the present study finds that /s/ has a higher spectral center of gravity in PS than in IS by about 10%, that PS speakers speak slower than IS speakers by about 9%, and that Spanish-speaking women speak slower than Spanish-speaking men by about 5% (irrespective of dialect).