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Acoustically induced streaming flows near a model cod otolith and their potential implications for fish hearing
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View: Figures


Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

Atlantic cod hair cells are generally spatially distributed in groups with similar orientations in a “dual” pattern (after Dale 1976). The arrows point in the direction of the kinocilium and thus indicate the direction of maximum neural response.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

Particle pathlines illustrating steady streaming flows patterns along a diametrical slice of a sphere. The arrow indicates the direction of oscillation. The 2.54 cm diameter sphere is oscillated at 7 Hz with a peak amplitude of 2 mm. The length scale, L, is the sphere radius of 1.27 cm.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

Schematic of the experimental setup. A laser light sheet illuminates a plane of the flow in the vicinity of the model otolith which is immersed in a tank of a Newtonian liquid and oscillated along the vertical (y axis) by a shaker. The light sheet is perpendicular to the sulcus, and the light scattered by tracer particles suspended in the liquid are imaged by a digital video camera.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

Sketch of model cod otolith defining coordinate system and the location where data were obtained for flow studies.

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

Particle pathlines (a)–(c) and velocity vectors (d)–(f) near the model otolith along the plane denoted by the solid line in Fig. 4 for θ = 0° at Re/ɛ = 30 (a) and (d), 60 (b) and (e), and 90 (c) and (f), and ɛ = 0.05. The solid white line denotes the location of the sulcus, and the double headed white arrow denotes the direction of oscillation. The other arrows point to flow features that are discussed in the text. (d)–(f) Normalized rate of strain contours, with each contour 0.1 apart. The rate of strain is normalized by Vs /δ, as discussed in the text. The bold contour denotes 0, and the dotted lines denote negative values. The arrows show the velocity vectors from the PIV analysis, with only every other arrow shown for clarity. The squares are “stagnation points,” and the circle denotes the location of the maximum velocity vector.

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

Similar to Fig. 5, but for Re/ɛ = 60 and ɛ = 0.05 at θ =− 15° (a) and (d), 0° (b) and (e), and 30° (c) and (f).

Image of FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

Similar to the particle pathlines of the previous figures, but for ɛ = 0.025 (a) and 0.05 (b) at Re/ɛ = 80 and θ = 0°.

Image of FIG. 8.
FIG. 8.

As in Fig. 5(c), but taken at the location of the dotted line on Fig. 4. This illustrates the effect of changing the z-location of the data on the particle pathlines.


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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Acoustically induced streaming flows near a model cod otolith and their potential implications for fish hearing