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Dolphin and sea lion auditory evoked potentials in response to single and multiple swept amplitude tones
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10.1121/1.3608117
/content/asa/journal/jasa/130/2/10.1121/1.3608117
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/asa/journal/jasa/130/2/10.1121/1.3608117

Figures

Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

Amplitude profile for swept amplitude stimuli. The stimulus SPL increased linearly by 50 dB over the first 1.6 s, then decreased linearly by 50 dB over the next 0.16 s. The stimulus was followed by 40 ms of silence. The peak amplitude depended on the frequency and anticipated threshold.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

(Color online) ASSR measured in the dolphin TRO to a single-frequency swept amplitude stimulus. (a) Stimulus waveform for 40-kHz swept amplitude SAM tone. (b) ASSR waveform. (c) Spectrogram of the ASSR obtained via short-time Fourier transform with a 40-ms analysis window and 50% overlap. The dashed line indicates the modulation rate. (d) ASSR amplitude as a function of the response latency and stimulus SPL.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

(Color online) Multiple ASSR measured in the dolphin TRO to a swept amplitude stimulus comprised of nine SAM tones, with carrier frequencies between 10 and 160 kHz. (a) Stimulus waveform. (b) Spectrogram of the ASSR obtained via short-time Fourier transform with an 80-ms analysis window and 50% overlap. The dashed lines indicate the individual modulation rates. (c) ASSR spectral contents within the analysis window from 1.445–1.605 s, the analysis window expected to contain the highest amplitude portion of the ASSR. The dashed lines indicate the modulation rates.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

(Color online) Multiple ASSR measured in the dolphin BLU to a swept amplitude stimulus comprised of nine SAM tones, with carrier frequencies between 10 and 160 kHz. (a) Stimulus waveform. (b) Spectrogram of the ASSR obtained via short-time Fourier transform with an 80-ms analysis window and 50% overlap. The dashed lines indicate the individual modulation rates. (c) ASSR spectral contents within the analysis window from 1.445–1.605 s, the analysis window expected to contain the highest amplitude portion of the ASSR. The dashed lines indicate the modulation rates.

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

(Color online) Multiple ASSR measured in the sea lion JFN to a swept amplitude stimulus comprised of seven SAM tones, with carrier frequencies between 0.5 and 32 kHz. (a) Stimulus waveform. (b) Spectrogram of the ASSR obtained via short-time Fourier transform with an 80-ms analysis window and 50% overlap. The dashed lines indicate the individual modulation rates. (c) ASSR spectral contents within the analysis window from 1.445–1.605 s, the analysis window expected to contain the highest amplitude portion of the ASSR. The dashed lines indicate the modulation rates.

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

ASSR amplitude functions measured in the dolphin TRO using single discrete, multiple discrete, and multiple swept amplitude stimuli. The solid lines show the ASSR amplitudes measured for each test condition and the symbols indicate the ASSRs that were actually detected based on the MSC, with α = 0.01. Measurements were conducted once for each stimulus condition.

Image of FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

ASSR amplitude functions measured in the dolphin BLU using single discrete, multiple discrete, and multiple swept amplitude stimuli. Measurements were conducted 2–18 times (depending on frequency) for the single discrete condition, 31 times for the multiple discrete condition, and twice for the swept amplitude condition. The lines show the mean values of the ASSR amplitudes and the symbols indicate those values for which at least half of the ASSRs were detected based on the MSC, with α = 0.01. The discrete stimulus data were pooled into 5-dB bins before averaging.

Image of FIG. 8.
FIG. 8.

ASSR amplitude functions measured in the sea lion JFN using single discrete, multiple discrete, and multiple swept amplitude stimuli. Measurements were conducted twice for each stimulus condition. The lines show the mean values of the ASSR amplitudes and the symbols indicate those values for which at least half of the ASSRs were detected based on the MSC, with α = 0.01. The discrete stimulus data were pooled into 5-dB bins before averaging.

Image of FIG. 9.
FIG. 9.

Hearing thresholds as a function of frequency for (a) the dolphin TRO, (b) the dolphin BLU, and (c) the sea lion JFN. Psychophysical thresholds for BLU and JFN are from Finneran et al. (2010) and Mulsow et al. (2011), respectively. Note the change in abscissa scale for (c). Symbols and error bars represent the mean threshold± one standard deviation.

Image of FIG. 10.
FIG. 10.

The time required for testing each subject using the three different stimulus conditions. Values for BLU and JFN are averaged; the error bars indicate one standard deviation.

Tables

Generic image for table
TABLE I.

Stimulus and recording parameters for the dolphins TRO and BLU and the sea lion JFN tested under the single discrete (SD), multiple discrete (MD), and multiple swept amplitude (MS) conditions. Modulation rates are shown rounded to three significant figures; the actual rates were chosen to ensure an integral number of modulation cycles within the frequency analysis window.

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/content/asa/journal/jasa/130/2/10.1121/1.3608117
2011-08-01
2014-04-16
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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Dolphin and sea lion auditory evoked potentials in response to single and multiple swept amplitude tones
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/asa/journal/jasa/130/2/10.1121/1.3608117
10.1121/1.3608117
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