Index of content:
Volume 130, Issue 2, August 2011
- ARCHITECTURAL ACOUSTICS 
130(2011); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3605534View Description Hide Description
A Fourier series method is proposed for the acoustic analysis of a rectangular cavity with impedance boundary conditions arbitrarily specified on any of the walls. The sound pressure is expressed as the combination of a three-dimensional Fourier cosine series and six supplementary two-dimensional expansions introduced to ensure (accelerate) the uniform and absolute convergence (rate) of the series representation in the cavity including the boundary surfaces. The expansion coefficients are determined using the Rayleigh–Ritz method. Since the pressure field is constructed adequately smooth throughout the entire solution domain, the Rayleigh–Ritz solution is mathematically equivalent to what is obtained from a strong formulation based on directly solving the governing equations and the boundary conditions. To unify the treatments of arbitrary nonuniform impedance boundary conditions, the impedance distribution function on each specified surface is invariantly expressed as a double Fourier series expansion so that all the relevant integrals can be calculated analytically. The modal parameters for the acoustic cavity can be simultaneously obtained from solving a standard matrix eigenvalue problem instead of iteratively solving a nonlinear transcendental equation as in the existing methods. Several numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness and reliability of the current method for various impedance boundary conditions, including nonuniform impedance distributions.
130(2011); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3605535View Description Hide Description
The modification of elastic properties of compressed acoustic foams is investigated. The porous sample is first submitted to a static compression and then to a dynamic excitation of smaller amplitude, corresponding to acoustical applications. The static compression induces the modification of the dynamic elastic parameters of the material. This work focuses on Young’s modulus. The variation is measured with two different experimental methods: The classical rigidimeter and an absorption measurement. The effective Young’s modulus is directly measured with the first method and is indirectly determined through the quarter-wave length resonance of the frame with the second one. The results of the two measurements are compared and give similar tendencies. The variation of the dynamic Young’s modulus as a function of the degree of compression of the sample is shown to be separated in several zones. In the zones associated with weak compression (those usually zones encountered in practice), the variation of the effective Young’s modulus can be approximated by a simple affine function. The results are compared for different foams. A simple model of the dependency of the Young’s modulus with respect to the static degree of compression is finally proposed for weak compressions.
Computation of acoustic absorption in media composed of packed microtubes exhibiting surface irregularity130(2011); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3605563View Description Hide Description
A multi-scale homogenization technique and a finite element-based solution procedure are employed to compute acoustic absorption in smooth and rough packed microtubes. The absorption considered arises from thermo-viscous interactions between the fluid media and the microtube walls. The homogenization technique requires geometric periodicity, which for smooth tubes is invoked using the periodicity of the finite element mesh; for rough microtubes, the periodicity invoked is that associated with the roughness. Analysis of the packed configurations, for the specific microtube radii considered, demonstrates that surface roughness does not appreciably increase the overall absorption, but instead shifts the peaks and values of the absorption curve. Additionally, the effect of the fluid media temperature on acoustic absorption is also explored. The results of the investigation are used to make conclusions about tailored design of acoustically absorbing microtube-based materials.
130(2011); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3607422View Description Hide Description
Concert hall acoustics was evaluated with a descriptive sensory analysis method by employing an individual vocabulary development technique. The goal was to obtain sensory profiles of three concert halls by eliciting perceptual attributes for evaluation and comparison of the halls. The stimuli were gathered by playing back anechoic symphony music from 34 loudspeakers on stage in each concert hall and recording the sound field with a microphone array. Four musical programs were processed for multichannel 3D sound reproduction in the actual listening test. Twenty screened assessors developed their individual set of attributes and performed a comparative evaluation of nine seats, three in each hall. The results contain the distinctive groups of elicited attributes and show good agreement within assessors, even though they applied individual attributes when rating the samples. It was also found that loudness and distance gave the strongest perceptual direction to the principal component basis. In addition, the study revealed that the perception of reverberance is related to the size of the space or to the enveloping reverberance, depending on the assessor.