Index of content:
Volume 130, Issue 2, August 2011
- BIOACOUSTICS 
130(2011); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3608119View Description Hide Description
Experimental evidence indicates that bats can use frequency-modulated echolocation to identify objects with an accuracy of less than 1 μs. However, when modeling this process, it is difficult to estimate the delay times of multiple closely spaced objects by analyzing the echo spectrum, because the sequence of delay separations cannot be determined without information on the temporal changes in the interference patterns of the echoes. To extract the temporal changes, Gaussian chirplets with a carrier frequency compatible with bat emission sweep rates are introduced. The delay time for object 1 (T1) is estimated from the echo spectrum around the onset time. The T2 is obtained by adding the T1 to the delay separation between objects 1 and 2. Further objects are located in sequence by this procedure. Here echoes were measured from single and multiple objects at a low signal-to-noise ratio. It was confirmed that the delay time for a single object could be estimated with an accuracy of about 1.3 μs. The range accuracy was less than 6 μs when the frequency bandwidth was less than 10 kHz. The delay time for multiple closely spaced objects could be estimated with a high range resolution by extracting the interference pattern.
Dolphin and sea lion auditory evoked potentials in response to single and multiple swept amplitude tones130(2011); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3608117View Description Hide Description
Measurement of the auditory steady-state response (ASSR) is increasingly used to assess marine mammal hearing. These tests normally entail measuring the ASSR to a sequence of sinusoidally amplitude modulated tones, so that the ASSR amplitude function can be defined and the auditory threshold estimated. In this study, an alternative method was employed, where the ASSR was elicited by an amplitude modulated stimulus whose sound pressure level was slowly varied, or “swept,” over a range of levels believed to bracket the threshold. The ASSR amplitude function was obtained by analyzing the resulting grand average evoked potential using a short-time Fourier transform. The suitability of this technique for hearing assessment of bottlenose dolphins and California sea lions was evaluated by comparing ASSR amplitude functions and thresholds obtained with swept amplitude and discrete, constant amplitude stimuli. When factors such as the number of simultaneous tones, the number of averages, and the frequency analysis window length were taken into account, the performance and time required for the swept-amplitude and discrete stimulus techniques were similar. The decision to use one technique over another depends on the relative importance of obtaining suprathreshold information versus the lowest possible thresholds.
Acoustically induced streaming flows near a model cod otolith and their potential implications for fish hearing130(2011); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3605295View Description Hide Description
The ears of fishes are remarkable sensors for the small acoustic disturbances associated with underwater sound. For example, each ear of the Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) has three dense bony bodies (otoliths) surrounded by fluid and tissue, and detectssounds at frequencies from 30 to 500 Hz. Atlantic cod have also been shown to localize sounds. However, how their ears perform these functions is not fully understood. Steady streaming, or time-independent, flows near a 350% scale model Atlantic cod otolith immersed in a viscous fluid were studied to determine if these fluid flows contain acoustically relevant information that could be detected by the ear’s sensory hair cells. The otolith was oscillated sinusoidally at various orientations at frequencies of 8–24 Hz, corresponding to an actual frequency range of 280–830 Hz. Phase-locked particle pathline visualizations of the resulting flows give velocity, vorticity, and rate of strain fields over a single plane of this mainly two-dimensional flow. Although the streaming flows contain acoustically relevant information, the displacements due to these flows are likely too small to explain Atlantic cod hearing abilities near threshold. The results, however, may suggest a possible mechanism for detection of ultrasound in some fish species.
A numerical study on the propagation of Rayleigh and guided waves in cortical bone according to Mindlin’s Form II gradient elastic theory130(2011); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3605566View Description Hide Description
Cortical bone is a multiscale heterogeneous natural material characterized by microstructural effects. Thus guided waves propagating in cortical bone undergo dispersion due to both materialmicrostructure and bone geometry. However, above 0.8 MHz, ultrasound propagates rather as a dispersive surface Rayleigh wave than a dispersive guided wave because at those frequencies, the corresponding wavelengths are smaller than the thickness of cortical bone. Classical elasticity, although it has been largely used for wave propagation modeling in bones, is not able to support dispersion in bulk and Rayleigh waves. This is possible with the use of Mindlin’s Form-II gradient elastictheory, which introduces in its equation of motion intrinsic parameters that correlate microstructure with the macrostructure. In this work, the boundary element method in conjunction with the reassigned smoothed pseudo Wigner–Ville transform are employed for the numerical determination of time-frequency diagrams corresponding to the dispersion curves of Rayleigh and guided waves propagating in a cortical bone. A composite material model for the determination of the internal length scale parameters imposed by Mindlin’s elastictheory is exploited. The obtained results demonstrate the dispersive nature of Rayleigh wave propagating along the complex structure of bone as well as how microstructure affects guided waves.