Index of content:
Volume 130, Issue 2, August 2011
- SPEECH PRODUCTION 
Computation of physiological human vocal fold parameters by mathematical optimization of a biomechanical model130(2011); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3605551View Description Hide Description
With the use of an endoscopic, high-speed camera, vocal fold dynamics may be observed clinically during phonation. However, observation and subjective judgment alone may be insufficient for clinical diagnosis and documentation of improved vocal function, especially when the laryngeal disease lacks any clear morphological presentation. In this study, biomechanical parameters of the vocal folds are computed by adjusting the corresponding parameters of a three-dimensional model until the dynamics of both systems are similar. First, a mathematical optimization method is presented. Next, model parameters (such as pressure, tension and masses) are adjusted to reproduce vocal fold dynamics, and the deduced parameters are physiologically interpreted. Various combinations of global and local optimization techniques are attempted. Evaluation of the optimization procedure is performed using 50 synthetically generated data sets. The results show sufficient reliability, including 0.07 normalized error, 96% correlation, and 91% accuracy. The technique is also demonstrated on data from human hemilarynx experiments, in which a low normalized error (0.16) and high correlation (84%) values were achieved. In the future, this technique may be applied to clinical high-speed images, yielding objective measures with which to document improved vocal function of patients with voice disorders.
Sensitivity of vocal fold vibratory modes to their three-layer structure: Implications for computational modeling of phonation130(2011); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3605529View Description Hide Description
The sensitivity of the eigenmodes and eigenfrequencies of the human vocal fold to its three-layer structure is studied using finite-element modeling. The study covers a variety of three-dimensional vocal fold models ranging from an idealized, longitudinally uniform structure to a physiologically more realistic, longitudinally varying structure. Geometric parameters including the thickness of the ligament and cover layers as well as the ligament length are varied systematically. The results indicate that vocal fold vibratory modes are quite insensitive to the longitudinal variation in the thickness of the three layers as well as the variation in ligament length. However, significant overall changes in thickness of each layer can produce noticeable changes in these modes. The implications of these findings on computational modeling of phonation are discussed.
130(2011); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3605671View Description Hide Description
Voice quality is strongly dependent on vocal folddynamics, which in turn are dependent on lung pressure and vocal foldbiomechanics. Numerical and physical models are often used to investigate the interactions of these different subsystems. However, the utility of numerical and physical models is limited unless appropriately validated with data from physiological models. Hence a method that enables analysis of local vocal fold deformations along the entire surface is presented. In static tensile tests, forces are applied to distinctive working points being located in cover and muscle, respectively, so that specific layer properties can be investigated. The forces are directed vertically upward and are applied along or above the vocal fold edge. The resulting deformations are analyzed using multiple perspectives and three-dimensional reconstruction. Deformation characteristics of four human vocal folds were investigated. Preliminary results showed two phases of deformation: a range with a small slope for small deformations fading into a significant nonlinear deformation trend with a high slope. An increase of tissue stiffness from posterior to anterior was detected. This trend is more significant for muscle and in the mid-anterior half of the vocal fold.