Volume 130, Issue 3, September 2011
- letters to the editor
- general linear acoustics 
- nonlinear acoustics 
- aeroacoustics, atmospheric sound 
- underwater sound 
- ultrasonics, quantum acoustics, and physical effects of sound 
- transduction 
- structural acoustics and vibration 
- noise: its effects and control 
- architectural acoustics 
- acoustic signal processing 
- physiological acoustics 
- psychological acoustics 
- speech production 
- speech perception 
- music and musical instruments 
- bioacoustics 
- acoustical news
- acoustical standards news
- reviews of acoustical patents
Index of content:
- LETTERS TO THE EDITOR
130(2011); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3614545View Description Hide Description
A superposition of propagating Bessel beams was recently numerically demonstrated to approximate a Gaussian beam and was used to evaluate the scattering by a sphere centered on the focal point of the beam. An analytical beam synthesis used in optics by Agrawal and Pattanayak [J. Opt. Soc. Am. 69, 575–578 (1979)] is found here to be recovered as the weak focusing limit of the quasi-Gaussian beam when evanescent contributions are omitted from the analytical synthesis. The propagating-wave part of the analytical synthesis has similarities to, and differences from, the recent quasi-Gaussian approximation.
130(2011); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3621294View Description Hide Description
Beamforming with uniform circular microphone arrays can be used for localizing sound sources over . Typically, the array microphones are suspended in free space or they are mounted on a solid cylinder. However, the cylinder is often considered to be infinitely long because the scattering problem has no exact solution for a finite cylinder. Alternatively one can use a solid sphere. This investigation compares the performance of a circular array mounded on a rigid sphere with that of such an array in free space and mounted on an infinite cylinder, using computer simulations. The examined techniques are delay-and-sum and circular harmonics beamforming, and the results are validated experimentally.
The impact of reverberant self-masking and overlap-masking effects on speech intelligibility by cochlear implant listeners (L)130(2011); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3614539View Description Hide Description
The purpose of this study is to determine the relative impact of reverberant self-masking and overlap-masking effects on speech intelligibility by cochlear implant listeners. Sentences were presented in two conditions wherein reverberant consonant segments were replaced with clean consonants, and in another condition wherein reverberant vowel segments were replaced with clean vowels. The underlying assumption is that self-masking effects would dominate in the first condition, whereas overlap-masking effects would dominate in the second condition. Results indicated that the degradation of speech intelligibility in reverberant conditions is caused primarily by self-masking effects that give rise to flattened formant transitions.
- GENERAL LINEAR ACOUSTICS 
130(2011); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3613703View Description Hide Description
The current study simultaneously addresses the problem of reflection and refraction of sound from a rigid porous ground surface. A more rigorous approach is used to derive more accurate asymptotic solutions that can be cast in a convenient form for ease of numerical implementations. The solutions provide means for rapid computations of the sound fields above and below the rigid porous ground. The improved asymptotic formulas for both situations agree well with numerical results obtained by other numerical schemes, which are more accurate but computationally more intensive. More importantly, the asymptotic solutions can be written in the well-known form of the Weyl–van der Pol formula, which provides a direct correlation between the reflected wave term for the sound field above the porous ground and the transmitted (refracted) wave term for the sound field below.
- NONLINEAR ACOUSTICS 
130(2011); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3621485View Description Hide Description
In therapeuticultrasound, the presence of shock waves can be significant due to the use of high intensity beams, as well as due to shock formation during inertial cavitation. Although modeling of such strongly nonlinear waves can be carried out using spectral methods, such calculations are typically considered impractical, since accurate calculations often require hundreds or even thousands of harmonics to be considered, leading to prohibitive computational times. Instead, time-domain algorithms which generally utilize Godunov-type finite-difference schemes are commonly used. Although these time domain methods can accurately model steep shock wave fronts, unlike spectral methods they are inherently unsuitable for modeling realistic tissue dispersion relations. Motivated by the need for a more general model, the use of Gegenbauer reconstructions as a postprocess tool to resolve the band-limitations of the spectral methods are investigated. The present work focuses on eliminating the Gibbs phenomenon when representing a steep wave front using a limited number of harmonics. Both plane wave and axisymmetric 2D transducer problems will be presented to characterize the proposed method.
130(2011); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3614550View Description Hide Description
Fractional derivatives are well suited to describe wave propagation in complex media. When introduced in classical wave equations, they allow a modeling of attenuation and dispersion that better describes sound propagation in biological tissues. Traditional constitutive equations from solid mechanics and heat conduction are modified using fractional derivatives. They are used to derive a nonlinear wave equation which describes attenuation and dispersion laws that match observations. This wave equation is a generalization of the Westervelt equation, and also leads to a fractional version of the Khokhlov–Zabolotskaya–Kuznetsov and Burgers’ equations.
Generalized response of a sphere embedded in a viscoelastic medium excited by an ultrasonic radiation forcea)130(2011); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3613939View Description Hide Description
The response of an embedded sphere in a viscoelastic medium excited by acoustic radiation force has been studied in both the time- and frequency-domains. This model is important because it can be used to characterize the viscoelasticproperties of the medium by fitting the response to the theoretical model. The Kelvin–Voigt model has been used exclusively in these models. An extension to the previously reported models is described so that any viscoelastic rheological model can be used. This theoretical development describes the generalized embedded sphere response both in the time and frequency domains. Comparing the results from derivations in both domains showed very good agreement with a median absolute error (MAE) ranging from 0.0044 to 0.0072. Good agreement is demonstrated with finite element model simulations and the theory with a MAE of 0.006. Lastly, results for characterization of gelatin and rubbermaterials with the new theory are shown where the MAE values were used to determine which rheological model best describes the measured responses.
- AEROACOUSTICS, ATMOSPHERIC SOUND 
130(2011); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3619789View Description Hide Description
This study quantifies the influence of atmospheric clouds on propagation of sound and infrasound, based on an existing model [Gubaidulin and Nigmatulin, Int. J. Multiphase Flow 26, 207–228 (2000)]. Clouds are considered as a dilute and polydisperse suspension of liquid water droplets within a mixture of dry air and water vapor, both considered as perfect gases. The model is limited to low and medium altitude clouds, with a small ice content. Four physical mechanisms are taken into account: viscoinertial effects, heat transfer, water phase changes (evaporation and condensation), and vapor diffusion. Physical properties of atmospheric clouds (altitude, thickness, water content and droplet size distribution) are collected, along with values of the thermodynamical coefficients. Different types of clouds have been selected. Quantitative evaluation shows that, for low audible and infrasound frequencies, absorption within clouds is several orders of magnitude larger than classical absorption. The importance of phase changes and vapor diffusion is outlined. Finally, numerical simulations for nonlinear propagation of sonic booms indicate that, for thick clouds, attenuation can lead to a very large decay of the boom at the ground level.
In situ calibration of atmospheric-infrasound sensors including the effects of wind-noise-reduction pipe systems130(2011); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3613925View Description Hide Description
A worldwide network of more than 40 infrasound monitoring stations has been established as part of the effort to ensure compliance with the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty. Each station has four to eight individual infrasound elements in a kilometer-scale array for detection and bearing determination of acoustic events. The frequency range of interest covers a three-decade range—roughly from 0.01 to 10 Hz. A typical infrasound array element consists of a receiving transducer connected to a multiple-inlet pipe network to average spatially over the short-wavelength turbulence-associated “wind noise.” Although the frequency response of the transducer itself may be known, the wind-noise reduction system modifies that response. In order to understand the system’s impact on detection and identification of acoustical events, the overall frequency response must be determined. This paper describes a technique for measuring the absolute magnitude and phase of the frequency response of an infrasound element including the wind-noise-reduction piping by comparison calibration using ambient noise and a reference-microphone system. Measuredcoherence between the reference and the infrasound element and the consistency between the magnitude and the phase provide quality checks on the process.
130(2011); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3621097View Description Hide Description
The prevalence of noise in the riding of motorcycles has been a source of concern to both riders and researchers in recent times. Detailed flow field information will allow insight into the flow mechanisms responsible for the production of sound within motorcycle helmets. Flow field surveys of this nature are not found in the available literature which has tended to focus on sound pressure levels at ear as these are of interest for noise exposure legislation. A detailed flow survey of a commercial motorcycle helmet has been carried out in combination with surface pressure measurements and at ear acoustics. Three potential noise source regions are investigated, namely, the helmet wake, the surface boundary layer and the cavity under the helmet at the chin bar. Extensive information is provided on the structure of the helmet wake including its frequency content. While the wake and boundary layer flows showed negligible contributions to at-ear sound the cavity region around the chin bar was identified as a key noise source. The contribution of the cavity region was investigated as a function of flow speed and helmet angle both of which are shown to be key factors governing the sound produced by this region.
- UNDERWATER SOUND 
Observationally constrained modeling of sound in curved ocean internal waves: Examination of deep ducting and surface ducting at short range130(2011); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3605565View Description Hide Description
A study of 400 Hz sound focusing and ducting effects in a packet of curved nonlinear internal waves in shallow water is presented. Sound propagation roughly along the crests of the waves is simulated with a three-dimensional parabolic equation computational code, and the results are compared to measured propagation along fixed 3 and 6 km source/receiver paths. The measurements were made on the shelf of the South China Sea northeast of Tung-Sha Island. Construction of the time-varying three-dimensional sound-speed fields used in the modeling simulations was guided by environmental data collected concurrently with the acoustic data. Computed three-dimensional propagation results compare well with field observations. The simulations allow identification of time-dependent sound forward scattering and ducting processes within the curved internal gravity waves. Strong acoustic intensity enhancement was observed during passage of high-amplitude nonlinear waves over the source/receiver paths, and is replicated in the model. The waves were typical of the region (35 m vertical displacement). Two types of ducting are found in the model, which occur asynchronously. One type is three-dimensional modal trapping in deep ducts within the wave crests (shallow thermocline zones). The second type is surface ducting within the wave troughs (deep thermocline zones).
130(2011); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3618728View Description Hide Description
Although sound has been applied to the study of sediment transport processes for a number of years, it is acknowledged that there are still problems in using the backscattered signal to measure suspended sediment parameters. In particular, when the attenuation due to the suspension becomes significant, the uncertainty associated with the variability in the scatteringcharacteristics of the sediments in suspension can lead to inversion errors which accumulate as the sound propagates through the suspension. To study this attenuation propagation problem, numerical simulations and laboratory experiments have been used to assess the impact unpredictability in the scatteringproperties of the suspension has on the acoustically derived suspended sediments parameters. The results clearly show the commonly applied iterative implicit inversion can lead to calculated sediment parameters, which become increasingly erroneous with range, as the sound propagates through the suspension. To address this problem an alternative approach to the iterative implicit formulation is investigated using a recently described dual frequency inversion. This approach is not subject to the accumulation of errors and has an explicit solution. Here the dual frequency inversion is assessed and calculated suspended sediment parameters are compared with those obtained from the iterative implicit inversion.
130(2011); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3621074View Description Hide Description
Recently, by introducing locally resonantscatterers with spherical shape proposed in phononic crystals into design of underwater soundabsorption materials, the low-frequency underwater soundabsorption phenomenon induced by the localized resonances is observed. To reveal this absorption mechanism, the effect of the locally resonant mode on underwater soundabsorption should be studied. In this paper, the finite element method, which is testified efficiently by comparing the calculation results with those of the layer multiple scattering method, is introduced to investigate the dynamic modes and the corresponding sound absorption of localized resonance. The relationship between the resonance modes described with the displacement contours of one unit cell and the corresponding absorption spectra is discussed in detail, which shows that the localized resonance leads to the absorption peak, and the mode conversion from longitudinal to transverse waves at the second absorption peak is more efficient than that at the first one. Finally, to show the modeling capability of FEM and investigate shape effects of locally resonantscatterers on underwater soundabsorption, the absorption properties of viscoelastic materials containing locally resonantscatterers with ellipsoidal shape are discussed.
130(2011); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3614540View Description Hide Description
The underwater noise from impact pile driving is studied using a finite element model for the sound generation and parabolic equation model for propagation. Results are compared with measurements using a vertical line array deployed at a marine construction site in Puget Sound. It is shown that the dominant underwater noise from impact driving is from the Machwave associated with the radial expansion of the pile that propagates down the pile after impact at supersonic speed. The predictions of vertical arrival angle associated with the Mach cone, peak pressure level as function of depth, and dominant features of the pressure timeseries compare well with corresponding field observations.
130(2011); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3621059View Description Hide Description
Signal-processing techniques for localizing an acoustic source buried in noise are tested in a tank experiment. Noise is generated using a discrete source, a bubblegenerator, and a sprinkler. The experiment has essential elements of a realistic scenario in matched-field processing, including complex source and noisetime series in a waveguide with water, sediment, and multipath propagation. The noise-canceling processor is found to outperform the Bartlett processor and provide the correct source range for signal-to-noise ratios below − 10 dB. The multivalued Bartlett processor is found to outperform the Bartlett processor but not the noise-canceling processor.
130(2011); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3570949View Description Hide Description
A maximum likelihood method for estimating remote surface orientation from multi-static acoustic, optical, radar, or laser images is presented. It is assumed that the images are corrupted by signal-dependent noise, known as speckle, arising from complex Gaussian field fluctuations, and that the surface properties are effectively Lambertian. Surface orientation estimates for a single sample are shown to have biases and errors that vary dramatically depending on illumination direction. This is due to the signal-dependent nature of specklenoise and the nonlinear relationship between surface orientation, illumination direction, and fluctuating radiance. The minimum number of independent samples necessary for maximum likelihood estimates to become asymptotically unbiased and to attain the lower bound on resolution of classical estimation theory are derived, as are practical design thresholds.
130(2011); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3621271View Description Hide Description
Acoustic tomography in a shallow ultrasonicwaveguide is demonstrated at the laboratory scale between two source–receiver arrays. At a 1/1 000 scale, the waveguide represents a 1.1-km-long, 52-m-deep ocean acoustic channel in the kilohertz frequency range. Two coplanar arrays record the transfer matrix in the time domain of the waveguide between each pair of source–receiver transducers. A time-domain, double-beamforming algorithm is simultaneously performed on the source and receiver arrays that projects the multi-reflected acoustic echoes into an equivalent set of eigenrays, which are characterized by their travel times and their launch and arrival angles. Travel-time differences are measured for each eigenray every 0.1 s when a thermal plume is generated at a given location in the waveguide. Travel-time tomography inversion is then performed using two forward models based either on ray theory or on the diffraction-based sensitivity kernel. The spatially resolved range and depth inversion data confirm the feasibility of acoustic tomography in shallow water. Comparisons are made between inversion results at 1 and 3 MHz with the inversion procedure using ray theory or the finite-frequency approach. The influence of surface fluctuations at the air–water interface is shown and discussed in the framework of shallow-water oceantomography.
Information and linearity of time-domain complex demodulated amplitude and phase data in shallow water130(2011); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3613709View Description Hide Description
Wave-theoretic ocean acoustic propagation modeling is used to derive the sensitivity of pressure, and complex demodulated amplitude and phase, at a receiver to the sound speed of the medium using the Born–Fréchet derivative. Although the procedure can be applied for pressure as a function of frequency instead of time, the time domain has advantages in practical problems, as linearity and signal-to-noise are more easily assigned in the time domain. The linearity and information content of these sensitivity kernels is explored for an example of a 3–4 kHz broadband pulse transmission in a 1 km shallow water Pekeris waveguide. Full-wave observations (pressure as a function of time) are seen to be too nonlinear for use in most practical cases, whereas envelope and phase data have a wider range of validity and provide complementary information. These results are used in simulated inversions with a more realistic sound speed profile, comparing the performance of amplitude and phase observations.
130(2011); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3614542View Description Hide Description
An ocean acoustic waveguideremote sensing system can instantaneously image and continuously monitor fish populations distributed over continental shelf-scale regions. Here it is shown theoretically that the areal population density of fish groups can be estimated from their incoherently averaged broadband matched filtered scattered intensities measured using a waveguideremote sensing system with less than 10% error. A numerical Monte-Carlo model is developed to determine the statistical moments of the scattered returns from a fish group. It uses the parabolic equation to simulate acoustic field propagation in a random range-dependent oceanwaveguide. The effects of (1) multiple scattering, (2) attenuation due to scattering, and (3) modal dispersion on fish population density imaging are examined. The model is applied to investigate population density imaging of shoaling Atlantic herring during the 2006 Gulf of Maine Experiment. Multiple scattering,attenuation and dispersion are found to be negligible at the imaging frequencies employed and for the herring densities observed. Coherent multiple scattering effects, such as resonance shifts, which can be significant for small highly dense fish groups on the order of the acoustic wavelength, are found to be negligible for the much larger groups typically imaged with a waveguideremote sensing system.
130(2011); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3614547View Description Hide Description
This paper proposes an active sonar receivers that offers a smooth trade-off between detection and resolution. A matched filter is the optimal detector of known signals in white Gaussian noise but may fail to resolve the targets if the time separation of targets is less than the mainlobe width of the autocorrelation function of the transmitted signal. An inverse filter achieves optimal resolution performance for multiple targets in the absence of noise, but amplifies the noise outside the signal bandwidth in a manner that makes it impractical in many realistic scenarios. The proposed active sonar receiver, the variable resolution and detection receiver (VRDR) combines the matched and inverse filter properties to achieve a smooth trade-off between detection and resolution. Simulated receiver operating characteristics demonstrate that for a range of dipole sonar targets, the performance of the VRDR is superior to the matched and inverse filter, as well as another previously proposed bandlimited inverse filter.