Index of content:
Volume 130, Issue 4, October 2011
- NONLINEAR ACOUSTICS 
130(2011); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3625236View Description Hide Description
Chirp-encoded excitation has been utilized for increased signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in both linear and harmonic imaging. In either case, it is necessary to isolate the relevant frequency band to avoid artifacts. In contrast, the present study isolates and then combines the fundamental and the higher harmonics, treating them as a single, extended bandwidth. Pulse-inverted sum and difference signals are first used to isolate even and odd harmonics. Matched filters specific to the source geometry and the transmit signal are then separately applied to each harmonic band. Verification experiments are performed using up to the third harmonic resulting from an underwater chirp excitation. Analysis of signal peaks after scattering from a series of steel and nylon wires indicates increased compression using the extended bandwidth, as compared to well-established methods for fundamental and second harmonic chirp compression. Using third harmonic bands, a mean pulse width of 56% relative to fundamental compression and 48% relative to second harmonic compression was observed. Further optimization of the compression by altering the transmission indicated 17% additional reduction in the pulse width and a 47% increase in peak-to-sidelobe ratio. Overall, results establish the feasibility of extended bandwidth signal compression for simultaneously increasing SNR and signal resolution.
Nonlinear shear wave interaction at a frictional interface: Energy dissipation and generation of harmonics130(2011); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3628663View Description Hide Description
Analytical and numerical modeling of the nonlinear interaction of shear wave with a frictional interface is presented. The system studied is composed of two homogeneous and isotropic elastic solids, brought into frictional contact by remote normal compression. A shear wave, either time harmonic or a narrow band pulse, is incident normal to the interface and propagates through the contact. Two friction laws are considered and the influence on interface behavior is investigated: Coulomb’s law with a constant friction coefficient and a slip-weakening friction law which involves static and dynamic friction coefficients. The relationship between the nonlinear harmonics and the dissipated energy, and the dependence on the contact dynamics (friction law, sliding, and tangential stress) and on the normal contact stress are examined in detail. The analytical and numerical results indicate universal type laws for the amplitude of the higher harmonics and for the dissipated energy, properly non-dimensionalized in terms of the pre-stress, the friction coefficient and the incident amplitude. The results suggest that measurements of higher harmonics can be used to quantify friction and dissipation effects of a sliding interface.
130(2011); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3621714View Description Hide Description
Prediction of crack growth and fatigue life estimation of metals using linear/nonlinear acousto-ultrasound methods is an ongoing issue. It is known that by measuring nonlinear parameters, the relative accumulated fatigue damage can be evaluated. However, there is still a need to measure two crack propagation states to assess the absolute residual fatigue life. A procedure based on the measurement of a third-order acoustic nonlinear parameter is presented to assess the residual fatigue life of a metallic component without the need of a baseline. The analytical evaluation of how the cubic nonlinear-parameter evolves during crack propagation is presented by combining the Paris law to the Nazarov–Sutin crack equation. Unlike other developed models, the proposed model assumes a crack surface topology with variable geometrical parameters. Measurements of the cubic nonlinearity parameter on AA2024-T351 specimens demonstrated high sensitivity to crack propagation and excellent agreement with the predicted theoretical behavior. The advantages of using the cubic nonlinearity parameter for fatigue cracks on metals are discussed by comparing the relevant results of a quadratic nonlinear parameter. Then the methodology to estimate crack size and residual fatigue life without the need of a baseline is presented, and advantages and limitations are discussed.
Elimination of standing wave effects in ultrasound radiation force excitation in air using random carrier frequency packets130(2011); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3628336View Description Hide Description
The ultrasoundradiation force has been used for noncontact excitation of devices ranging from microcantilevers to acoustic guitars. For ultrasoundradiation force excitation, one challenge is formation of standing waves between the ultrasound transducer and the device under test. Standing waves result in constructive/destructive interference causing significant variations in the intensity of the ultrasound field. The standing-wave induced intensity variations in the radiation force can result from minor changes in the transducer position, carrier frequency, or changes in the speed of sound due to changes in ambient temperature. The current study demonstrates that by randomly varying the ultrasound carrier frequency in packets, it is possible to eliminate the negative consequences resulting from the formation of standing waves. A converging ultrasound transducer with a central frequency of 550 kHz was focused onto a brass cantilever. The 267 Hz resonance was excited with the ultrasoundradiation force with a carrier frequency that randomly varied between 525 kHz to 575 kHz in packets of 10 cycles. Because each packet had a different carrier frequency, the amplitude of standing wave artifacts was reduced by a factor of 20 compared to a constant frequency excitation of 550 kHz.