Index of content:
Volume 130, Issue 4, April 2011
- STRUCTURAL ACOUSTICS AND VIBRATION 
Modeling and analysis of multiple scattering of acoustic waves in complex media: Application to the trabecular bone130(2011); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3625285View Description Hide Description
The integral equations that describe scattering in the media with step-rise changing parameters have been numerically solved for the trabecular bone model. The model consists of several hundred discrete randomly distributed elements. The spectral distribution of scattering coefficients in subsequent orders of scattering has been presented. Calculations were carried on for the ultrasonic frequency ranging from 0.5 to 3 MHz. Evaluation of the contribution of the first, second, and higher scattering orders to total scattering of the ultrasounds in trabecular bone was done. Contrary to the approaches that use the μCT images of trabecular structure to modeling of the ultrasonic wave propagation condition, the 3D numerical model consisting of cylindrical elements mimicking the spatial matrix of trabeculae, was applied. The scattering, due to interconnections between thick trabeculae, usually neglected in trabecular bone models, has been included in calculations when the structure backscatter was evaluated. Influence of the absorption in subsequent orders of scattering is also addressed. Results show that up to 1.5 MHz, the influence of higher scattering orders on the total scattered field characteristic can be neglected while for the higher frequencies, the relatively high amplitude interference peaks in higher scattering orders clearly occur.
130(2011); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3631627View Description Hide Description
A phononic crystal (PC) consisting of a square array of cylindrical Polyvinylchloride inclusions in air is used to construct a variety of acoustic logic gates. In a certain range of operating frequencies, the PCband structure shows square-like equi-frequency contours centered off the Gamma point. This attribute allows for the realization of non-collinear wave and group velocity vectors in the PCwave vector space. This feature can be utilized to control with great precision, the relative phase between propagating acoustic waves in the PC. By altering the incidence angle of the impinging acoustic beams or varying the PC thickness, interferences occur between acoustic wave pairs. It is recognized that information can be encoded with this mechanism (e.g., wave amplitudes/interference patterns) and accordingly to construct a series of logic gates emulating Boolean functions. The NAND, XOR, and NOT gates are demonstrated with finite-difference time-domain simulations of acoustic waves impinging upon the PC.