Vapor cavity R(t). Radius is normalized to the radius of particle and time is normalized to the period of acoustic forcing. Laser radiant exposure is 3.4 mJ/cm2, and acoustic peak negative pressures are 0.68, 0.80, 0.90, and 0.98 MPa. The inset is a magnified version of the region in the circle in the main plot.
Normalized vapor cavity R(t). Peak acoustic negative pressure is 0.9 MPa. Laser radiant exposures are 3.27, 3.40, 3.80, and 3.85 mJ/cm2.
The normalized maximum radius of the transient vapor cavity vs phase ϕ. The radius of the particle is Rs = 40 nm. The laser radiant exposure is 0.12 mJ/cm2 and the peak negative acoustic pressure is 1.4 MPa. The acoustic wave phase is superimposed, where the compression and rarefaction portions of the cycle are indicated by the “+” and “−” symbols, respectively.
R max (normalized to Rs ) of transient vapor cavities vs acoustic peak negative pressure at laser radiant exposures 3.5, 4.0, 5.0, and 6.0 mJ/cm2. Rs = 40 nm and ϕ = π/4.
Threshold acoustic peak negative pressure vs laser radiant exposure for particles of radii 20, 30, 40, 80, and 100 nm.
The inertial vapor cavitation thresholds when the acoustic pressure set to zero. The laser wavelength is 532 nm and the pulse length τ on = 5 ns.
Optical efficiency parameters ɛ 1 and ɛ 2 and the normalized optical nucleation threshold as functions of particle radius.
The threshold laser radiant exposure vs particle radius at acoustic pressures of 0.6, 1.0, 2.0, and 2.5 MPa.
The radiant exposure vs. pulse duration for (1) particle radius 40 nm, peak acoustic pressure 1 MPa and (2) particle radius 80 nm, peak acoustic pressure 2 MPa.
Material parameters that are assumed to be independent of temperature.
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