Index of content:
Volume 130, Issue 5, November 2011
- NONLINEAR ACOUSTICS 
130(2011); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3641403View Description Hide Description
The nonlinear progressive wave equation (NPE) [McDonald and Kuperman, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 81, 1406–1417 (1987)] is expressed in a form to accommodate changes in the ambient atmospheric density, pressure, and sound speed as the time-stepping computational window moves along a path possibly traversing significant altitude differences (in pressure scale heights). The modification is accomplished by the addition of a stratification term related to that derived in the 1970s for linear range-stepping calculations and later adopted into Khokhlov-Zabolotskaya-Kuznetsov-type nonlinear models. The modified NPE is shown to preserve acoustic energy in a ray tube and yields analytic similarity solutions for vertically propagating N waves in isothermal and thermally stratified atmospheres.
130(2011); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3641405View Description Hide Description
The aim is to assess the nonclassical component of material nonlinearity in several classes of materials with weak, intermediate, and high nonlinear properties. In this contribution, an optimized nonlinear resonant ultrasound spectroscopy (NRUS) measuring and data processing protocol applied to small samples is described. The protocol is used to overcome the effects of environmental condition changes that take place during an experiment, and that may mask the intrinsic nonlinearity. External temperature fluctuation is identified as a primary source of measurement contamination. For instance, a variation of 0.1 °C produced a frequency variation of 0.01%, which is similar to the expected nonlinear frequency shift for weakly nonlinear materials. In order to overcome environmental effects, the reference frequency measurements are repeated before each excitation level and then used to compute nonlinear parameters. Using this approach, relative resonant frequency shifts of 10−5 can be measured, which is below the limit of 10−4 often considered as the limit of NRUS sensitivity under common experimental conditions. Due to enhanced sensitivity resulting from the correction procedure applied in this work, nonclassical nonlinearity in materials that before have been assumed to only be classically nonlinear in past work (steel, brass, and aluminum) is reported.