Index of content:
Volume 130, Issue 5, November 2011
- STRUCTURAL ACOUSTICS AND VIBRATION 
Theoretical and experimental study of the nonlinear resonance vibration of cementitious materials with an application to damage characterization130(2011); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3647303View Description Hide Description
This paper presents a theoretical and experimental study of the nonlinear flexural vibration of a cement-based material with distributed microcracks caused by an important deterioration mechanism, alkali-silica reaction (ASR). The general equation of motion is derived for the flexural vibration of a slender beam with the nonlinear hysteretic constitutive relationship for consolidated materials, and then an approximate formula for excitation-dependent resonance frequency is obtained. A downward shift of the resonance frequency is related to the nonlinearity parameters defined in the constitutive relationship. Vibration experiments are conducted on standard mortar bar samples undergoing progressive ASR damage. The absolute nonlinearity parameters are determined from these experimental results using the theoretical solution in order to investigate their dependence on the damage state of the material. With the progress of the ASR damage, the absolute value of the hysteresis nonlinearity parameter increases by as much as six times from the intact (undamaged) state in the sample with highly reactive aggregate; this is in contrast to a change of about 16% in the linear resonance frequency. It is demonstrated that the combined theoretical and experimental approach developed in this research can be used to quantitatively characterize ASR damage in mortar samples and other cement-based materials.
130(2011); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3641365View Description Hide Description
This study investigates the propagation of Lamb waves in phononic-crystal plates in the form of a sandwich-layered structure. The composite plates are composed of periodic layers bilaterally deposited on both sides of the homogeneous core layer. Using the analyses of the band structures and the transmission spectra, it is revealed that the core layer may induce significant modulations to the lower-order Lamb modes. The modulations are ascribed to the reshaped particle displacement fields of the eigenmodes. Prominently, the core layer made of soft material (rubber) combines the identical eigenmodes of the periodic layers into a pair of asymmetric and symmetric modes in which case the periodic layers vibrate independently. However, the core layer made of hard material (tungsten) or medium hardness material (silicon) couples the periodic layers tightly, in which case the composites vibrate as a whole. In addition, it is found that the phononic band gaps are very sensitive to the thickness of the core layer; this could be indispensable to practical applications such as bandgap tuning.
130(2011); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3643818View Description Hide Description
The results of numerical modeling of sonic crystals with resonant array elements are reported. The investigated resonant elements include plain slotted cylinders as well as their various combinations, in particular, Russian doll or Matryoshka configurations. The acoustic band structure and transmission characteristics of such systems have been computed with the use of finite element methods. The general concept of a locally resonant sonic crystal is proposed that utilizes acoustic resonances to form additional band gaps that are decoupled from Bragg gaps. An existence of a separate attenuation mechanism associated with the resonant elements that increases performance in the lower frequency regime has been identified. The results show a formation of broad band gaps positioned significantly below the first Bragg frequency. For low frequency broadband attenuation, a most optimal configuration is the Matryoshka sonic crystal, where each scattering unit is composed of multiple concentric slotted cylinders. This system forms numerous gaps in the lower frequency regime, below Bragg bands, while maintaining a reduced crystal size viable for noise barrier technology. The finding opens alternative perspectives for the construction of sound barriers in the low frequency range usually inaccessible by traditional means including conventional sonic crystals.