Volume 130, Issue 5, November 2011
Index of content:
- UNDERWATER SOUND 
A nonlocal effective operator for coupling forward and backward propagating modes in inhomogeneous media130(2011); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3640845View Description Hide Description
In an acoustic waveguide spatial inhomogeneities couple the forward and backward propagating modal amplitudes. To address the nature of such coupling the integral equation for the range-dependent modal amplitudes is decomposed into components that satisfy the asymptotic boundary conditions of the free Green’s function operator. An equivalent set of equations is obtained by eliminating the components that become the asymptotically backward propagating channels to leave a set of integral equations that describe only the components that become asymptotically the forward propagating channels. The elimination of the components that become asymptotically the backward propagating channels is done at the expense of introducing a nonlocal effective coupling operator. The nonlocal operator contains all the effects of the asymptotically backward propagating field on the asymptotically forward propagating field. An expansion of the effective coupling operator allows an investigation of the importance of the coupling and provides a systematic approach to add correction terms to the forward only equation. Idealistic underwater waveguides with various degrees of inhomogeneities are used to illustrate the main features of the convergence characteristics for the expansion.
130(2011); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3641415View Description Hide Description
A series of laboratory experiments was conducted to obtain high-quality data for acoustic propagation in shallow water waveguides with sloping elastic bottoms. Accurate modeling of transmission loss in these waveguides can be performed with the variable rotated parabolic equation method. Results from an earlier experiment with a flat or sloped slab of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) demonstrated the necessity of accounting for elasticity in the bottom and the ability of the model to produce benchmark-quality agreement with experimental data [J. M. Collis et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 122, 1987–1993 (2007)]. This paper presents results of a second experiment, using two PVC slabs joined at an angle to create a waveguide with variable bottom slope. Acoustic transmissions over the 100–300 kHz band were received on synthetic horizontal arrays for two source positions. The PVC slabs were oriented to produce three different simulated waveguides: flat bottom followed by downslope, upslope followed by flat bottom, and upslope followed by downslope. Parabolic equationsolutions for treating variable slopes are benchmarked against the data.
Improvements to the methods used to measure bubble attenuation using an underwater acoustical resonator130(2011); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3569723View Description Hide Description
Active acoustic techniques are commonly used to measure oceanic bubble size distributions, by inverting the bulk acoustical properties of the water (usually the attenuation) to infer the bubble population. Acoustical resonators have previously been used to determine attenuation over a wide range of frequencies (10–200 kHz) in a single measurement, corresponding to the simultaneous measurement of a wide range of bubble sizes (20–300 μm radii). However, there is now also considerable interest in acquiring measurements of bubbles with radii smaller than 16 μm, since these are thought to be important for ocean optics and as tracers for near-surface flow. To extend the bubble population measurement to smaller radii, it is necessary to extend the attenuationmeasurements to higher frequencies. Although the principles of resonator operation do not change as the frequency increases, the assumptions previously made during the spectral analysis may no longer be valid. In order to improve the methods used to calculate attenuation from acoustical resonator outputs, a more complete analysis of the resonator operation is presented here than has been published previously. This approach allows for robust attenuationmeasurements over a much wider frequency range and enables accurate measurements from lower-quality spectral peaks.