Index of content:
Volume 130, Issue 6, December 2011
- AEROACOUSTICS, ATMOSPHERIC SOUND 
130(2011); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3652868View Description Hide Description
In previous research [Raspet et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am.123(3), 1260–1269 (2008)], predictions of the low frequency turbulence-turbulence and turbulence-mean shear interaction pressure spectra measured by a large wind screen were developed and compared to the spectra measured using large spherical wind screens in the flow. The predictions and measurements agreed well except at very low frequencies where the turbulence-mean shear contribution dominated the turbulence-turbulence interaction pressure. In this region the predicted turbulence-mean shear interaction pressure did not show consistent agreement with microphonemeasurements. The predicted levels were often much larger than the measured results. This paper applies methods developed to predict the turbulence-shear interaction pressuremeasured at the ground [Yu et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am.129(2), 622–632 (2011)] to improve the prediction of the turbulence-shear interaction pressure above the ground surface by incorporating a realistic wind velocity profile and realistic turbulenceanisotropy. The revised prediction of the turbulence-shear interaction pressure spectra compares favorably with wind-screen microphonemeasurements in large wind screens at low frequency.
Random focusing of nonlinear acoustic N-waves in fully developed turbulence: Laboratory scale experiment130(2011); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3652869View Description Hide Description
A laboratory experiment was conducted to study the propagation of short duration (25 μs) and high amplitude (1000 Pa) acoustic N-waves in turbulent flow.Turbulent flows with a root-mean-square value of the fluctuatingvelocity up to 4 m/s were generated using a bidimensional nozzle (140 × 1600 mm2). Energy spectra of velocityfluctuations were measured and found in good agreement with the modified von Kármán spectrum for fully developed turbulence. Spherical N-waves were generated by an electric spark source. Distorted waves were measured by four 3 mm diameter microphones placed beyond the turbulent jet. The presence of turbulence resulted in random focusing of the pulse; more than a threefold increase of peak pressures was occasionally observed. Statistics of the acoustic field parameters were evaluated as functions of the propagation distance and the level of turbulencefluctuations. It is shown that random inhomogeneities decrease the mean peak positive pressure up to 30% at 2 m from the source, double the mean rise time, and cause the arrival time about 0.3% earlier than that for corresponding conditions in still air. Probability distributions of the pressure amplitude possess autosimilarity properties with respect to the level of turbulencefluctuations.
130(2011); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3655881View Description Hide Description
Many outdoor sound sources, such as aircraft or ground vehicles, exhibit directional radiation patterns. However, long-range sound propagation algorithms are usually formulated for omnidirectional point sources. This paper describes two methods for incorporating directional sources into long-range sound propagation algorithms. The first is the equivalent source method (ESM), which determines a compact distribution of omnidirectional point sources reproducing a given directivity pattern in the far field. This method can be used with any propagation algorithm because it explicitly reconstructs a source function as a set of point sources with certain amplitudes and positions. The second is a directional starter method (DSM), which is developed specifically for the parabolic equation (PE) algorithms. This method derives narrow- or wide-angle directional starter fields, corresponding to a given source directivity pattern, without reconstructing the equivalent source distribution. Although the ESM can also be used for the PE, the DSM is simpler and can be more convenient, especially if the sound propagation is calculated only for one or a few azimuthal directions. While these two methods are found to produce generally distinct starter fields, they nonetheless yield identical directivity patterns.