Volume 130, Issue 6, December 2011
Index of content:
- NOISE: ITS EFFECTS AND CONTROL 
Acoustic insertion loss due to two dimensional periodic arrays of circular cylinders parallel to a nearby surface130(2011); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3655880View Description Hide Description
The acoustical performances of regular arrays of cylindrical elements, with their axes aligned and parallel to a ground plane, have been investigated through predictions and laboratory experiments. Semi-analytical predictions based on multiple scattering theory and numerical simulations based on a boundary element formulation have been made. Measurements have been made in an anechoic chamber using arrays of (a) cylindrical acoustically-rigid scatterers (PVC pipes) and (b) thin elastic shells. Insertion loss (IL) spectra due to the arrays have been measured without and with ground planes for several receiver heights. Data and predictions have been compared. The minima in the excess attenuation spectrum i.e., attenuation maxima due to the ground alone resulting from destructive interference between direct and ground-reflected sound waves, tend to have an adverse influence on the band gaps (BG) related to a periodic array in the free field when these two effects coincide. On the other hand, the presence of rigid ground may result in an IL for an array near the ground similar to or, in the case of the first BG, greater than that resulting from a double array, equivalent to the original array plus its ground plane mirror image, in the free field.
A comparison between exposure-response relationships for wind turbine annoyance and annoyance due to other noise sources130(2011); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3653984View Description Hide Description
Surveys have shown that noise from wind turbines is perceived as annoying by a proportion of residents living in their vicinity, apparently at much lower noise levels than those inducing annoyance due to other environmental sources. The aim of the present study was to derive the exposure-response relationship between wind turbinenoise exposure in Lden and the expected percentage annoyed residents and to compare it to previously established relationships for industrial noise and transportation noise. In addition, the influence of several individual and situational factors was assessed. On the basis of available data from two surveys in Sweden (N = 341, N = 754) and one survey in the Netherlands (N = 725), a relationship was derived for annoyance indoors and for annoyance outdoors at the dwelling. In comparison to other sources of environmental noise, annoyance due to wind turbinenoise was found at relatively low noise exposure levels. Furthermore, annoyance was lower among residents who received economical benefit from wind turbines and higher among residents for whom the wind turbine was visible from the dwelling. Age and noise sensitivity had similar effects on annoyance to those found in research on annoyance by other sources.
130(2011); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3655884View Description Hide Description
Patients and staff in hospitals are exposed to a complex sound environment with rather high noise levels. In intensive care units, the main noise sources are hospital staff on duty and medical equipment, which generates both operating noise and acoustic alarms. Although noise in most cases is produced during activities for the purpose of saving life, noise can induce significant changes in the depth and quality of sleep and negatively affect health in general. Results of a survey of hospital staff are presented, as well as measurements in two German hospital wards: a standard two-bed room and a special intermediate care unit (IMC-Unit), each in a different intensive care unit (ICU). Sound pressure data were collected over a 48 hour period and converted into different levels (LAFeq, LAFmax LAFmin, LAF 5%), as well as a rating level LAr, which is used to take tonality and impulsiveness into account. An analysis of the survey and the measured data, together with a comparison of thresholds of national and international regulations and standards describe the acoustic situation and its likely noiseeffects on staff and patients.
130(2011); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3652902View Description Hide Description
The aim of this study is to characterize urban spaces, which combine landscape, acoustics, and lighting, and to investigate people’s perceptions of urban soundscapes through quantitative and qualitative analyses. A general questionnaire survey and soundwalk were performed to investigate soundscape perception in urban spaces. Non-auditory factors (visual image,day lighting, and olfactory perceptions), as well as acoustic comfort, were selected as the main contexts that affect soundscape perception, and context preferences and overall impressions were evaluated using an 11-point numerical scale. For qualitative analysis, a semantic differential test was performed in the form of a social survey, and subjects were also asked to describe their impressions during a soundwalk. The results showed that urban soundscapes can be characterized by soundmarks, and soundscape perceptions are dominated by acoustic comfort, visual images, and day lighting, whereas reverberance in urban spaces does not yield consistent preference judgments. It is posited that the subjective evaluation of reverberance can be replaced by physical measurements. The categories extracted from the qualitative analysis revealed that spatial impressions such as openness and density emerged as some of the contexts of soundscape perception.