Index of content:
Volume 130, Issue 6, December 2011
- NONLINEAR ACOUSTICS 
Nonlinear elastodynamics in micro-inhomogeneous solids observed by head-wave based dynamic acoustoelastic testing130(2011); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3652871View Description Hide Description
Dynamic acoustoelastic testing provides a more complete insight into the acoustic nonlinearity exhibited by micro-inhomogeneous media like granular and cracked materials. This method consists of measuring time of flight and energy modulations of pulsed ultrasonicwaves induced by a low-frequency standing wave. Here pulsed ultrasonic head waves were employed to assess elastic and dissipative nonlinearities in a region near the surface of a solid. Synchronization of the ultrasound pulse sequence with the low-frequency excitation provided instantaneous variations in the elastic modulus and the attenuation as functions of the instantaneous low-frequency strain. Weak quadratic elastic nonlinearity and no dissipative nonlinearity were detected in duralumin. In limestone, distinction between tensile and compressive behaviors revealed an asymmetry in the acoustic nonlinearity and hysteresis in both the elastic modulus and the attenuation variations. Measured nonlinear acoustical parameters are in good agreement with values obtained by different techniques. Reversible acoustically induced conditioning modified the acoustic nonlinearity both quantitatively and qualitatively. It reduced tension-compression asymmetry, suggesting a nonequilibrium modification of the sources of acoustic nonlinearity. Additionally to the metrology of the acoustic nonlinearity, head wave based dynamic acoustoelastic testing may be a useful tool to monitor changes in the microstructure or the accumulation of damage in solids.