Index of content:
Volume 130, Issue 6, December 2011
- STRUCTURAL ACOUSTICS AND VIBRATION 
A transport model and numerical simulation of the high-frequency dynamics of three-dimensional beam trusses130(2011); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3651819View Description Hide Description
The theory of microlocal analysis shows that the energy density associated with the high-frequency vibrations of a three-dimensional Timoshenko beam satisfies a Liouville-type transport equation. In the present application, the material of the beam is assumed to be isotropic. Its parameters are allowed to vary along the beam axis at length scales much larger than the wavelength of the high-frequency waves traveling in it. Moreover, the curvature and torsion of the beam are accounted for. The first part of the paper focuses on the derivation of the transport model for a single three-dimensional beam. In order to extend this model to beam trusses, the reflection/transmission phenomena of the energy fluxes at junctions of beams are described by power flow reflection/transmission operators in a subsequent part. For numerical simulations, a discontinuous Galerkin finite element method is used on account of the discontinuities of the energy density field at the junctions. Thus, a complete mechanical–numerical modeling of the linear transient dynamics of beam trusses is proposed. It is illustrated by numerical examples highlighting some remarkable features of high-frequency vibrations: The onset of a diffusive regime characterized by energy equipartition rules at late times. Energy diffusion is prompted by the multiple reflection/transmission of waves at the junctions, with possible mode (polarization) conversions. This is the regime applicable to the statistical energy analysis of structural acoustics systems. The main purpose of this research is to develop an effective strategy to simulate and predict the transient response of beam trusses impacted by acoustic or mechanical shocks.
130(2011); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3654014View Description Hide Description
Real-world whole-body vibration exposures comprise motion in fore–aft, lateral, and vertical directions simultaneously. There can also be components of roll, pitch, and yaw. If evaluating vibration with respect to human response, most investigators will use methods defined in ISO 2631-1. This uses frequency weightings that were originally derived from laboratory studies of the subjective responses to vibration in one direction at a time. This paper describes experiments that were carried out using a 6 degree-of-freedom vibration simulator to validate the applicability of ISO 2631-1 in multi-axis environments. Fifteen subjects were exposed to 87 stimuli comprising single-axis, dual-axis, and tri-axial random vibration, to which they were required to produce subjective ratings. It is shown that in this study the root-sum-of-squares method of summation of subjective ratings in individual axes was an adequate technique for prediction of subjective rating of multi-axis vibration. Better agreement between objective and subjective measures of vibration was obtained for unweighted vibration than for frequency weighted signals. The best agreement for this study was achieved when axis multiplying factors were set at 2.2 and 2.4 for x- and y-axis vibration, respectively. Different values could be appropriate for other postures, seats, and vibration conditions and should be determined in future studies.
130(2011); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3651867View Description Hide Description
A laboratory method is presented by which the viscoelasticproperties of compliant materials are measured over a wide frequency range. The test setup utilizes a flexible beam clamped at one end and excited by a shaker at the free end. A small specimen of a compliant material is positioned to support the beam near its midpoint. The deformation from gravity is minimized since the specimen is not loaded by an attached mass. Forced vibration responses measured at two locations along the beam are used to derive a transfer function from which the dynamic properties of compliant materials are directly determined by use of a theoretical procedure investigating the effects of specimen stiffness on the propagation of flexural waves. Sensitivity of the measuredproperties to experimental uncertainties is investigated. Young’s moduli and associated loss factors are determined for compliant materials ranging from low-density closed-cell foams to high-density damping materials. The method is validated by comparing the measuredviscoelasticproperties to those from an alternative dynamic test method.