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Perceptually informed synthesis of bandlimited classical waveforms using integrated polynomial interpolation
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10.1121/1.3651227
/content/asa/journal/jasa/131/1/10.1121/1.3651227
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/asa/journal/jasa/131/1/10.1121/1.3651227

Figures

Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

When the continuous-time sinc pulse in (a) is integrated, the ideal bandlimited step function, the sine integral, shown in (b) (solid line) is obtained. The unit step function is also shown in (b) (dashed line). The BLEP residual, the difference between the bandlimited step function and the unit step function, is plotted in (c). T is the sampling interval used, i.e., T = 1/f s.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

(a) Continuous-time (solid line) and trivially sampled (dots) rectangular signal, (b) truncated BLEP residual functions of length 6T (solid line) centered at each discontinuity and inverted for downward steps, and (c) an approximately bandlimited signal that is obtained by adding sampled signals (a) and (b). The fractional delay associated with each discontinuity is given in (b).

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

Principle for computing the fractional delay d for the localization of the BLEP residual (a) at the start of a new fundamental period and (b) at the downward shift of the rectangular pulse wave with duty cycle P. The step size f 0 T and the sampling interval T form the sides of a right triangle which is similar to the right triangles from which fractional delay d can be solved for (c) a sawtooth wave or (d) a rectangular pulse wave.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

Continuous-time impulse responses of the (a) first-order, (d) second-order, and (g) third-order Lagrange interpolation, their corresponding integrated impulse responses (solid line) together with the unit step function (dashed line) in (b), (e), and (h), and their differences, i.e., polynomial approximations of the BLEP residual function, in (c), (f), and (i), respectively.

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

Sawtooth waveforms produced by the (a) second-order, (c) third-order, and (e) fourth-order Lagrange PolyBLEP approaches and their respective magnitude spectra (b), (d), and (f). The crosses indicate the nominal levels of harmonics of the sawtooth wave. The dashed lines show the spectral envelope of the synthetic harmonics and the first generation of aliased spectral components in each case.

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

Signal-processing structure that implements the polynomial correction of a trivial waveform, such as a rectangular signal. The polynomial BLEP method based on the integrated first-order Lagrange interpolation (see Table I) is shown.

Image of FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

Continuous-time impulse responses of the (a) second-order and (d) third-order B-spline interpolation, the corresponding integrated impulse responses (solid line) together with the unit step function (dashed line) in (b) and (e), and the corresponding BLEP residuals in (c) and (f).

Image of FIG. 8.
FIG. 8.

Sawtooth waveforms produced by the (a) third-order and (c) fourth-order B-spline PolyBLEP methods and their respective magnitude spectra (b) and (d).

Image of FIG. 9.
FIG. 9.

Spectrum of a sawtooth wave with fundamental frequency of 6645 Hz using the sample rate of 44.1 kHz corrected with the (a) second-order, (b) third-order, and (c) fourth-order Lagrange PolyBLEP approach. The desired magnitudes of the non-aliased components are marked with crosses. The dashed line represents the maximum of the hearing threshold and the masking threshold of the non-aliased components, assuming that the sawtooth wave is played back at 96 dB SPL. The aliased components above the perceptual threshold are indicated with circles.

Image of FIG. 10.
FIG. 10.

Spectrum of a sawtooth wave with fundamental frequency of 6645 Hz corrected with the (a) third-order and (b) fourth-order B-spline PolyBLEP methods.

Image of FIG. 11.
FIG. 11.

Noise-to-mask ratio (NMR) figures for sawtooth waveforms obtained by trivial sampling (plus signs), four- (dots) and 32-point (squares) look-up table BLEP method (LUT-BLEP), and the second-order Lagrange PolyBLEP method (diamonds) as a function of the fundamental frequency. The NMR of the second-order DPW algorithm is plotted with dashed line for comparison.

Image of FIG. 12.
FIG. 12.

NMR figures for sawtooth waveforms obtained by (a) the third-order Lagrange (triangles), the fourth-order Lagrange (crosses), (b) the third-order B-spline (circles), and the fourth-order B-spline PolyBLEP methods (stars).

Tables

Generic image for table
TABLE I.

First-order (N = 1) Lagrange polynomials, their integrated forms, and the corresponding BLEP residual polynomials, which correspond to the shifted integrated Lagrange polynomials from which a unit step function has been subtracted. Span refers to the time interval on which each polynomial is applied. Time 0 refers to the mid-point of the correction function and T is the sampling interval.

Generic image for table
TABLE II.

Second-order (N = 2) Lagrange polynomials, their integrated forms, and the corresponding BLEP residuals.

Generic image for table
TABLE III.

Third-order (N = 3) Lagrange polynomials, their integrated forms, and the corresponding BLEP residual polynomials.

Generic image for table
TABLE IV.

Coefficients b 0 and b 1 of the second-order post-processing equalizing FIR filter [see Eq. (16)] for the proposed algorithms.

Generic image for table
TABLE V.

Spectral envelopes of second-, third-, and fourth-order Lagrange PolyBLEP functions.

Generic image for table
TABLE VI.

Second-order (N = 2) B-spline polynomials, their integrated forms, and the corresponding BLEP residuals.

Generic image for table
TABLE VII.

Third-order (N = 3) B-spline polynomials, their integrated forms, and the corresponding BLEP residual polynomials.

Generic image for table
TABLE VIII.

Highest fundamental frequency that is perceptually aliasing-free for a sawtooth signal corrected with a polynomial (Lagrange and B-spline) or a look-up table BLEP (LUT-BLEP) method. In the LUT-BLEP residuals, the cut-off frequency scaling factor of α = 1, an oversampling factor of 64, and a Blackman function were used, and K indicates the number of samples to be corrected.

Generic image for table
TABLE IX.

Additional operations required in even-order PolyBLEP approaches with respect to the trivial signal generation in one period of oscillation.

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/content/asa/journal/jasa/131/1/10.1121/1.3651227
2012-01-13
2014-04-23
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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Perceptually informed synthesis of bandlimited classical waveforms using integrated polynomial interpolation
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/asa/journal/jasa/131/1/10.1121/1.3651227
10.1121/1.3651227
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