Do male northern elephant seals recognize individuals or merely relative dominance rank?
Click to view
(Color online) Results of playback experiments, each measured with three response assays: (a) maximum behavioral response; (b) total number of calls; and (c) maximum taxis (movement toward or away) in meters. Box plots used for the ordinal assay (behavioral response) show medians (thick line), 25th to 75th percentile (box), maximum/minimum values excluding outliers (whiskers), and outliers (circles). Bar graphs show means ±1 standard error. An asterisk or NS indicates a significant difference (p < 0.05) or no significant difference respectively. Playback conditions include Subordinate males (relative to the male whose calls were broadcast; in blue), Dominant males (higher in status; clear), S or s (very or slightly subordinate; see text for details), D or d (very or slightly dominant), and calls from Strange or Familiar α males.
Article metrics loading...
Full text loading...