Volume 131, Issue 1, January 2012
Index of content:
- SPEECH PRODUCTION 
131(2012); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3665988View Description Hide Description
Traditional models of mappings from midsagittal cross-distances to cross-sectional areas use only local cross-distance information. These are not the optimal models on which to base the construction of a mapping between the two domains. This can be understood because phonemic identity can affect the relation between local cross-distance and cross-sectional area. However, phonemic identity is not an appropriate independent variable for the control of an articulatory synthesizer. Two alternative approaches for constructing cross-distance to area mappings that can be used for articulatory synthesis are presented. One is a vowel height-sensitive model and the other is a non-parametric model called loess. These depend on global cross-distance information and generally perform better than the traditional models.
Comparing closed quotient in children singers’ voices as measured by high-speed-imaging, electroglottography, and inverse filtering131(2012); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3662061View Description Hide Description
The closed quotient, i.e., the ratio between the closed phase and the period, is commonly studied in voice research. However, the term may refer to measures derived from different methods, such as inverse filtering, electroglottography or high-speed digital imaging (HSDI). This investigation compares closed quotient data measured by these three methods in two boy singers. Each singer produced sustained tones on two different pitches and a glissando. Audio, electroglottographic signal (EGG), and HSDI were recorded simultaneously. The audio signal was inverse filtered by means of the decap program; the closed phase was defined as the flat minimum portion of the flow glottogram. Glottal area was automatically measured in the high speed images by the built-in camerasoftware, and the closed phase was defined as the flat minimum portion of the area-signal. The EGG-signal was analyzed in four different ways using the matlab open quotient interface. The closed quotient data taken from the EGG were found to be considerably higher than those obtained from inverse filtering. Also, substantial differences were found between the closed quotient derived from HSDI and those derived from inverse filtering. The findings illustrate the importance of distinguishing between these quotients.
131(2012); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3651823View Description Hide Description
This study examines cross-linguistic variation in the location of shared vowels in the vowel space across five languages (Cantonese, American English, Greek, Japanese, and Korean) and three age groups (2-year-olds, 5-year-olds, and adults). The vowels /a/, /i/, and /u/ were elicited in familiar words using a word repetition task. The productions of target words were recorded and transcribed by native speakers of each language. For correctly produced vowels, first and second formant frequencies were measured. In order to remove the effect of vocal tract size on these measurements, a normalization approach that calculates distance and angular displacement from the speaker centroid was adopted. Language-specific differences in the location of shared vowels in the formant values as well as the shape of the vowel spaces were observed for both adults and children.
131(2012); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3665998View Description Hide Description
There is increasing evidence that fine articulatory adjustments are made by speakers to reinforce and sometimes counteract the acoustic consequences of nasality. However, it is difficult to attribute the acoustic changes in nasal vowel spectra to either oral cavity configuration or to velopharyngeal opening (VPO). This paper takes the position that it is possible to disambiguate the effects of VPO and oropharyngeal configuration on the acoustic output of the vocal tract by studying the position and movement of the tongue and lips during the production of oral and nasal vowels. This paper uses simultaneously collected articulatory, acoustic, and nasal airflow data during the production of all oral and phonemically nasal vowels in Hindi (four speakers) to understand the consequences of the movements of oral articulators on the spectra of nasal vowels. For Hindi nasal vowels, the tongue body is generally lowered for back vowels, fronted for low vowels, and raised for front vowels (with respect to their oral congeners). These movements are generally supported by accompanying changes in the vowel spectra. In Hindi, the lowering of back nasal vowels may have originally served to enhance the acoustic salience of nasality, but has since engendered a nasal vowel chain shift.