Volume 131, Issue 2, February 2012
- jasa express letters
- letters to the editor
- general linear acoustics 
- nonlinear acoustics 
- aeroacoustics, atmospheric sound 
- underwater sound 
- ultrasonics, quantum acoustics, and physical effects of sound 
- structural acoustics and vibration 
- noise: its effects and control 
- architectural acoustics 
- acoustical measurements and instrumentation 
- acoustic signal processing 
- physiological acoustics 
- psychological acoustics 
- speech production 
- speech perception 
- speech processing and communication systems 
- music and musical instruments 
- bioacoustics 
- acoustical news
- book reviews
- reviews of acoustical patents
- part 2 special issue on continental shelf and shelfbreak acoustics
Index of content:
- JASA EXPRESS LETTERS
131(2012); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3670000View Description Hide Description
The combined effect of low-pass filtering (cut-off frequencies between 500 and 3000 Hz) and periodic interruptions (1.5 and 10 Hz) on speech intelligibility was investigated. When combined, intelligibility was lower than each manipulation alone, even in some conditions where there was no effect from a single manipulation (such as the fast interruption rate of 10 Hz). By using young normal-hearing listeners, potential suprathreshold deficits and agingeffects that may occur due to hearing impairment were eliminated. Thus, the results imply that reduced audibility of high-frequency speech components may partially explain the reduced intelligibility of interrupted speech in hearing impaired persons.
131(2012); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3672642View Description Hide Description
Based on the orthotropic model of the plate, the method to optimize the sound response of the distributed-mode loudspeaker (DML) using the attached masses and the multi-exciters has been investigated. The attached masses method will rebuild the modes distribution of the plate, based on which multi-exciter method will smooth the sound response. The results indicate that the method can be used to optimize the sound response of the DML.
131(2012); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3672641View Description Hide Description
In the context of binaural audio rendering, choosing the best head-related transfer function (HRTF) for an individual from large databases poses several problems. This study proposes a method to reduce the size of a given HRTF database. Participants, 45 in total, were asked to rate the quality of binaural synthesis for 46 HRTFs. The lack of reciprocity in the ratings was noted. Results were used to create a perceptually optimized HRTF subset which satisfied all participants’ judgments. The subset was validated using localization tests on a separate group of subjects with results showing reduced errors when subjects were given their best choice, rather than their worst choice HRTF.
131(2012); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3675459View Description Hide Description
This paper announces the availability of the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) subset of the mngu0 corpus, a collection of articulatory speech data from one speaker containing different modalities. This subset comprises volumetric MRI scans of the speaker’s vocal tract during sustained production of vowels and consonants, as well as dynamic mid-sagittal scans of repetitive consonant–vowel (CV) syllable production. For reference, high-quality acoustic recordings of the speech material are also available. The raw data are made freely available for research purposes.
131(2012); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3674990View Description Hide Description
There is substantial performance variability among listeners who transcribe degraded speech. Error patterns from 88 listeners who transcribed dysarthric speech were examined to identify differential use of syllabic strength cues for lexical segmentation. Transcripts from listeners were divided into four groups (ranging from Better- to Poorer- performing). Phrases classified as Higher- and Lower-intelligibility were analyzed separately for each performance group to assess the independent variable of severity. Results revealed that all four listener groups used syllabic strength cues for lexical segmentation of Higher-intelligibility speech, but only the Poorer listeners persisted with this strategy for the Lower-intelligibility phrases. This finding and additional analyses suggest testable hypotheses to address the role of cue-use and performance patterns.
Comparing vowel perception and production in Spanish and Portuguese: European versus Latin American dialects131(2012); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3674991View Description Hide Description
Recent acoustic descriptions have shown that Spanish and Portuguese vowels are produced differently in Europe and Latin America. The present study investigates whether comparable between-variety differences exist in vowel perception. Spanish, Peruvian, Portuguese, and Brazilian listeners were tested in a vowel identification task with stimuli sampled from the whole vowel space. The mean perceived first (F1) and second formant (F2) of every vowel category were compared across varieties. For both languages, perception exhibited the same between-variety differences as production for F1 but not F2, which suggests correspondence between produced F1 and perceived vowel height but not between F2 and frontness.
131(2012); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3675805View Description Hide Description
A modified loop filter design method for plucked string instruments is introduced. Previous loop filter designs do not properly represent the frequency-dependent damping of a silkstringed instrument. To solve this problem, the modified method evaluates how many harmonics are required and which portion of the sound should be chosen to effectively replicate the instrument. Then, the most reasonable filter parameters are determined based on the frequency signal-to-noise ratio of the synthesized sound.
131(2012); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3670594View Description Hide Description
It is hypothesized that in sine-wave replicas of natural speech, lexical tone recognition would be severely impaired due to the loss of F0 information, but the linguistic information at the sentence level could be retrieved even with limited tone information. Forty-one native Mandarin-Chinese-speaking listeners participated in the experiments. Results showed that sine-wave tone-recognition performance was on average only 32.7% correct. However, sine-wave sentence-recognition performance was very accurate, approximately 92% correct on average. Therefore the functional load of lexical tones on sentence recognition is limited, and the high-level recognition of sine-wave sentences is likely attributed to the perceptual organization that is influenced by top-down processes.
Solving permutations in frequency-domain for blind separation of an arbitrary number of speech sources131(2012); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3678657View Description Hide Description
Blind separation of speech sources in reverberant environments is usually performed in the time-frequency domain, which gives rise to the permutation problem: the different ordering of estimated sources for different frequency components. A two-stage method to solve permutations with an arbitrary number of sources is proposed. The suggested procedure is based on the spectral consistency of the sources. At the first stage frequency bins are compared with each other, while at the second stage the neighboring frequencies are emphasized. Experiments for perfect separation situations and for live recordings show that the proposed method improves the results of existing approaches.
Frequency dependent beating patterns and amplitude increase during the approach of an internal wave packet131(2012); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3678688View Description Hide Description
A frequency-dependent beating pattern in the spectrogram of broadband signals transmitted during the approach of an internal wave packet to an acoustic propagating path is reported. An analytical expression relating the acoustic signal measurements and environmental parameters under certain conditions is obtained. Three-dimensional parabolic equation modeling results compare well with Shallow Water 2006 experiment data.
131(2012); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3679004View Description Hide Description
A two-dimensional cylindrical acoustic concentrator is designed with multilayered alternative homogeneous materials, which can focus acoustic field and enhance acoustic energy in a given area. The frequency response analysis of the acoustic concentrator demonstrates that the acoustic energy can be concentrated within the device over a wide frequency band. Meanwhile, there are contradictory relations between the acoustic concentrating performances in the inner region and the scatteringproperties in the outer region of these concentrators. When the contradictory relations satisfy compromise balance, the concentration ratio can reach at least 70%.
A selective array activation method for the generation of a focused source considering listening position131(2012); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3679006View Description Hide Description
A focused source can provide an auditory illusion of a virtual source placed between the loudspeaker array and the listener. When a focused source is generated by time-reversed acoustic focusing solution, its use as a virtual source is limited due to artifacts caused by convergent waves traveling towards the focusing point. This paper proposes an array activation method to reduce the artifacts for a selected listening point inside an array of arbitrary shape. Results show that energy of convergent waves can be reduced up to 60 dB for a large region including the selected listening point.
131(2012); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3678668View Description Hide Description
In this letter, an adaptive time-reversal multichannel combiner is embedded within an iterative successive interference cancellation receiver. With the addition of matching pursuit, a sparse channel estimation technique, the combined receiver is shown to provide both temporal interference cancellation as well as spatial interference suppression in decoding simultaneous transmissions from separate users in a time-varying underwater acoustic environment. Experimental data collected during the KAM11 experiment illustrates that for a two-user multiple-access system, multiuser separation can be achieved.
Contrasting behavior between dispersive seismic velocity and attenuation: Advantages in subsoil characterization131(2012); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3678692View Description Hide Description
A careful look into the pertinent models of poroelasticity reveals that in water-saturated sediments or soils, the seismic (P and Swave)velocity dispersion and attenuation in the low field-seismic frequency band (20–200 Hz) have a contrasting behavior in the porosity-permeability domain. Taking advantage of this nearly orthogonal behavior, a new approach has been proposed, which leads to unique estimates of both porosity and permeability simultaneously. Through realistic numerical tests, the effect of maximum frequency content in data and the integration of P and Swaves on the accuracy and robustness of the estimates are demonstrated.
Psychometric properties of the coordinate response measure corpus with various types of background interferencea)131(2012); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3678680View Description Hide Description
The coordinate response measure (CRM) corpus has gained broad acceptance as a research tool for investigating speech intelligibility in background competition and has been widely used in studies of informational masking. The purpose of this study is to establish the psychometric characteristics of CRM target-word identification in various backgrounds with the goal of being able to determine when it is appropriate or not to use adaptive threshold procedures with the CRM corpus. Target-word identification performance based on adaptive tracking mapped directly onto the monotonic psychometric functions obtained for two-talker, four-talker, and cafeteria noise interferers.
Multifrequency species classification of acoustic-trawl survey data using semi-supervised learning with class discovery131(2012); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3678685View Description Hide Description
Acoustic surveys often use multifrequency backscatter to estimate fish and plankton abundance. Direct samples are used to validate species classification of acoustic backscatter, but samples may be sparse or unavailable. A generalized Gaussian mixture model was developed to classify multifrequency acoustic backscatter when not all species classes are known. The classification, based on semi-supervised learning with class discovery, was applied to data collected in the eastern Bering Sea during summers 2004, 2007, and 2008. Walleye pollock, euphausiids, and two other major classes occurring in the upper water column were identified.
131(2012); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3679390View Description Hide Description
The time of day when vibration occurs is considered as a factor influencing the human response to vibration. The aim of the present paper is to identify the times of day during which railway vibration causes the greatest annoyance, to measure the differences between annoyance responses for different time periods and to obtain estimates of the time of day penalties. This was achieved using data from case studies comprised of face-to-face interviews and internal vibration measurements (N = 755). Results indicate that vibration annoyance differs with time of day and that separate time of day weights can be applied when considering exposure–response relationships from railway vibration in residential environments.
- LETTERS TO THE EDITOR
131(2012); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3675967View Description Hide Description
Reducing the spatial aliasing error of the angular spectrum method by using an absorption layer is investigated in this paper. The acoustic equation including the absorption layer is presented and is transformed in the spatial frequency domain, where an implicit analytic solution is readily available. Its approximation, which is more suitable for numerical simulation, is derived and is numerically implemented. The comparisons between the present method and available methods demonstrate its validity and advantages.
The influence of age and high-frequency hearing loss on sensitivity to temporal fine structure at low frequencies (L)131(2012); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3672808View Description Hide Description
Sensitivity to temporal fine structure (TFS) at low frequencies may be adversely affected by hearing loss at high frequencies even when absolute thresholds at low frequencies are within the normal range. However, in several studies suggesting this, the effects of hearing loss and age were confounded. Here, interaural phase discrimination (IPD) thresholds for pure tones at 500 and 750 Hz were measured for 39 subjects with ages from 61 to 83 yr. All subjects had near-normal audiometric thresholds at low frequencies, but thresholds varied across subjects at high frequencies. IPD thresholds were correlated with age. IPD thresholds for the test frequency of 750 Hz were weakly correlated with absolute thresholds at high frequencies, but these correlations became non-significant when the effect of age was partialed out. The results do not confirm that sensitivity to TFS at low frequencies is influenced by hearing loss at high frequencies, independently of age.
131(2012); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3672650View Description Hide Description
The ability to match a pulsing electrode during multi-electrode stimulation through a research interface was measured in seven cochlear-implant (CI) users. Five listeners were relatively good at the task and two could not perform the task. Performance did not vary as a function of the number of electrodes or stimulation level. Performance on the matching task was not correlated to performance on an electrode-discrimination task. The listeners may have experienced the auditory enhancement effect, and this may have implications for speech recognition in noise for CI users.