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Mid-frequency geoacoustic inversion using bottom loss data from the Shallow Water 2006 Experiment
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Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

(Color online) GPS locations of acoustic measurements. Diamond: moored receiving array; black line: acoustic track with a towed source.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

(Color online) (a) Pulse compressed results for 60 pings with reduced travel time (see definition in text) in the frequency band of 1.5–6 kHz; (b) same data with the bottom bounce lined up at time zero.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

(Color online) (left) Sound speed profile for the tow; (right) geometry for the towed source data.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

(Color online) Direct path intensity corrected for spreading and the source beam pattern at 2, 3, 4, and 5 kHz (pings 1–19 have decreasing grazing angles).

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

(Color online) Measured source beam pattern at 2, 3, 4, and 5 kHz at one azimuth angle with source sitting upright. The direct path from the source to the receiver at 25 m depth corresponds to the angular range of 272°–281°.

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

(Color online) Bottom loss results at 2, 3, 4, and 5 kHz with a 10% bandwidth.

Image of FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

(Color online) Bottom loss results with uncertainty bounds at 2, 3, 4, and 5 kHz.

Image of FIG. 8.
FIG. 8.

Cost function surfaces in terms of ρ-c, c-α, and ρ-α through an exhaustive search at 3 kHz.

Image of FIG. 9.
FIG. 9.

(Color online) Best match between model and data at (a) 2 kHz, (b) 3 kHz, (c) 4 kHz, (d) 5 kHz including the feature around 20°.

Image of FIG. 10.
FIG. 10.

(Color online) Summary of inversion results for ρ, c, and α (a) using entire BL data and (b) using BL data excluding feature around 20°.

Image of FIG. 11.
FIG. 11.

(Color online) PE modeling results at 2, 3, 4, and 5 kHz with (a) flat bottom and (b) an 8 cm high Gaussian bottom feature.

Image of FIG. 12.
FIG. 12.

Comparison of sediment sound speed between direct measurements and geoacoustic inversion results in SW06. (a) GPS locations for each measurement and (b) sediment sound speed results. Water sound speed near water/sediment interface is approximately 1498 m/s for SW06.


Generic image for table

Comparison of sediment attenuation between direct measurement and geoacoustic inversion within a 2 km boxed area in SW06.


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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Mid-frequency geoacoustic inversion using bottom loss data from the Shallow Water 2006 Experiment