Volume 131, Issue 3, March 2012
- jasa express letters
- letters to the editor
- general linear acoustics 
- nonlinear acoustics 
- aeroacoustics, atmospheric sound 
- underwater sound 
- ultrasonics, quantum acoustics, and physical effects of sound 
- transduction 
- noise: its effects and control 
- acoustic signal processing 
- physiological acoustics 
- psychological acoustics 
- speech production 
- speech perception 
- speech processing and communication systems 
- music and musical instruments 
- bioacoustics 
- acoustical news
- acoustical standards news
- reviews of acoustical patents
- part 2 special issue on education in acoustics
Index of content:
- JASA EXPRESS LETTERS
131(2012); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3678667View Description Hide Description
This paper describes acoustic cues for classification of consonant voicing in a distinctive feature-based speech recognition system. Initial acoustic cues are selected by studying consonant production mechanisms. Spectral representations, band-limited energies, and correlation values, along with Mel-frequency cepstral coefficients features (MFCCs) are also examined. Analysis of variance is performed to assess relative significance of features. Overall, 82.2 %, 80.6 %, and 78.4 % classification rates are obtained on the TIMIT database for stops, fricatives, and affricates, respectively. Combining acoustic parameters with MFCCs shows performance improvement in all cases. Also, performance in the NTIMIT telephone channel speech shows that acoustic parameters are more robust than MFCCs.
131(2012); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3678663View Description Hide Description
Current research demonstrates that micro Dopplersonar has the capability to uniquely identify the presence of a moving human, making it an attractive component in surveillance systems for border security applications. Primary environmental factors that limit sonar performance are two-way spreading losses, ultrasonic absorption, and backscattered energy from the ground that appears at zero Doppler shift in the sonar signal processor. Spectral leakage from the backscatter component has a significant effect on sonar performance for slow moving targets. Sonar performance is shown to rapidly decay as the sensor is moved closer to the ground due to increasing surface backscatter levels.
131(2012); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3678666View Description Hide Description
An approach has been developed for extracting human gait parameters from micro Dopplersonar grams. Key parameters include average speed of walking, torso velocity, walk cycle time, and peak leg velocity. The approach is a modification of a technique previously used in radardata analysis. It has been adapted because of differences between sonar and radar micro Doppler grams. The approach has been applied to an acoustic data set of 16 female and 60 male walkers. Statistics have been tabulated that illustrate the similarities and dissimilarities between female and male gait. Males tend to walk with larger walk cycle times and peak leg velocities than females.
Complement to standard method for measuring normal incidence sound transmission loss with three microphones131(2012); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3681016View Description Hide Description
Complement to standard E2611-09 of the American Society for Testing and Materials [Standard Test Method for Measurement of Normal Incidence Sound Transmission of Acoustical Materials Based on the Transfer Matrix Method (American Society for Testing and Materials, New York, 2009)] is proposed in order to measure normal incidence sound transmission loss of materials in a modified impedance tube using a three-microphone two-load or one-load method. The modified tube is a standard two-microphone impedance tube, where a third microphone is mounted on a movable hard termination. This method is conceptually identical to the four-microphone two-load or one-load method described in the standard; however, it requires fewer transfer functions and one microphone less. The method is validated on (1) symmetrical homogeneous and (2) non-symmetrical non-homogeneous specimens.
131(2012); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3681925View Description Hide Description
Binaural masking patterns show a steep decrease in the binaural masking-level difference (BMLD) when masker and signal have no frequency component in common. Experimental threshold data are presented together with model simulations for a diotic masker centered at 250 or 500 Hz and a bandwidth of 10 or 100 Hz masking a sinusoid interaurally in phase (S 0) or in antiphase (S π). Simulations with a binauralmodel, including a modulation filterbank for the monaural analysis, indicate that a large portion of the decrease in the BMLD in remote-masking conditions may be due to an additional modulation cue available for monaural detection.
131(2012); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3682459View Description Hide Description
Some numerical results in the time domain obtained with the spectral-element method are presented in order to illustrate the high potential of this technique for modeling the propagation of acoustic waves in the ocean in complex configurations. A validation for a simple configuration with a known solution is shown, followed by some simulations of the propagation of acoustic waves over different types of ocean bottoms (fluid, elastic, and porous) to emphasize the wide variety of media that can be considered within the framework of this method. Finally, a movie illustrating upslope propagation over a viscoelastic wedge is presented and discussed.
131(2012); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3685511View Description Hide Description
Humans are able to adapt to unfamiliar forms of speech (such as accented, time-compressed, or noise-vocoded speech) quite rapidly. Can such perceptual learning occur when attention is directed away from the speech signal? Here, participants were simultaneously exposed to noise-vocoded sentences, auditory distractors, and visual distractors. One group attended to the speech, listening to each sentence and reporting what they heard. Two other groups attended to either the auditory or visual distractors, performing a target-detection task. Only the attend-speech group benefited from the exposure when subsequently reporting noise-vocoded sentences. Thus, attention to noise-vocoded speech appears necessary for learning.
131(2012); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3684741View Description Hide Description
Exploding hydrogen-oxygen balloons are popular chemistry demonstrations. Although initial research experimentally quantified potential hearing risk via analysis of peak levels [K. L. Gee et al., J. Chem. Educ. 87, 1039–1044 (2010)], further waveform and spectral analyses have been conducted to more fully characterize these impulsive noise sources. While hydrogen-only balloons produce inconsistent reactions and relatively low, variable levels, stoichiometrically mixed hydrogen-oxygen balloons produce consistent high-amplitude noise waveforms. Preliminary consideration is also given to the potential use of these exploding balloons in architectural acoustics applications.
Probing of laser-induced crack modulation by laser-monitored surface waves and surface skimming bulk waves131(2012); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3684737View Description Hide Description
All-optical monitoring of the nonlinear motion of a surface-breaking crack is reported. Crack closing is induced by quasi-continuous laser heating, while Rayleigh surface acoustic pulses and bulk longitudinal surface skimming acoustic pulses are also generated and detected by lasers. By exploiting the strong dependence of the acoustic pulses reflection and transmission efficiency on the state—open or closed—of the contacts between the crack faces, the parametric modulation of ultrasonic pulses is achieved. It is observed that bulk acoustic waves skimming along the surface can be more sensitive to crack motion than Rayleigh surface waves.
131(2012); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3684744View Description Hide Description
The accuracy of automatic speech recognition (ASR) systems is generally evaluated using corpora of grammatically sound read speech or natural spontaneous speech. This prohibits an accurate estimation of the performance of the acoustic modeling part of ASR because the language modeling performance is inherently integrated in the overall performance metric. In this work, ASR and human speech recognition (HSR) accuracies are compared for null grammar sentences in different signal-to-noise ratios and vocabulary sizes—1000, 2000, 4000, and 8000. The results shed light on differences between ASR and HSR in relative significance of bottom-up word recognition and context awareness.
131(2012); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3687014View Description Hide Description
Codebook-based single-microphone noise suppressors, which exploit prior knowledge about speech and noise statistics, provide better performance in nonstationary noise. However, as the enhancement involves a joint optimization over speech and noise codebooks, this results in high computational complexity. A codebook-based method is proposed that uses a reference signal observed by a bone-conduction microphone, and a mapping between air- and bone-conduction codebook entries generated during an offline training phase. A smaller subset of air-conducted speech codebook entries that accurately models the clean speech signal is selected using this reference signal. Experiments support the expected improvement in performance at low computational complexity.
Auditory externalization in hearing-impaired listeners: The effect of pinna cues and number of talkers131(2012); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3687015View Description Hide Description
Hearing-aid wearers have reported sound source locations as being perceptually internalized (i.e., inside their head). The contribution of hearing-aid design to internalization has, however, received little attention. This experiment compared the sensitivity of hearing-impaired (HI) and normal-hearing listeners to externalization cues when listening with their own ears and simulated behind-the-ear hearing-aids in increasingly complex listening situations and reduced pinna cues. Participants rated the degree of externalization using a multiple-stimulus listening test for mixes of internalized and externalized speech stimuli presented over headphones. The results showed that HI listeners had a contracted perception of externalization correlated with high-frequency hearing loss.
131(2012); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3687427View Description Hide Description
The accuracy of scatteredRayleigh waves estimated using an interferometric method is investigated. Summing the cross correlations of the wave fields measured all around the scatterers yields the Green’s function between two excitation points. This accounts for the direct wave and the scattered field (coda). The correlations themselves provide insights into the location of the scatterers, as well as which scatterer is responsible for particular parts of the coda. Furthermore, these measurements confirm a constant-time arrival in the correlations, not part of the Green’s function, but which has previously been derived as a result of the generalized optical theorem.
- LETTERS TO THE EDITOR
131(2012); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3681922View Description Hide Description
This letter examines the propagation of an acoustic pulse in an elastic medium with weak quadratic nonlinearity. Both a displacement pulse and a stress pulse of arbitrary shapes are used to generate the wave motion in the solid. By obtaining the explicit solutions for arbitrary pulse shapes, it is shown that for a sinusoidal tone-burst, in addition to a second order harmonic field, a radiation induced static strain field is also generated. These results help clarify some confusion in the recent literature regarding the shape of the propagating static displacement pulse.
- GENERAL LINEAR ACOUSTICS 
131(2012); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3672652View Description Hide Description
Green’s functions are derived for elastic waves generated by a volume source in a homogeneous isotropic half-space. The context is sources at shallow burial depths, for which surface (Rayleigh) and bulk waves, both longitudinal and transverse, can be generated with comparable magnitudes. Two approaches are followed. First, the Green’s function is expanded with respect to eigenmodes that correspond to Rayleigh waves. While bulk waves are thus ignored, this approximation is valid on the surface far from the source, where the Rayleigh wave modes dominate. The second approach employs an angular spectrum that accounts for the bulk waves and yields a solution that may be separated into two terms. One is associated with bulk waves, the other with Rayleigh waves. The latter is proved to be identical to the Green’s function obtained following the first approach. The Green’s function obtained via angular spectrum decomposition is analyzed numerically in the time domain for different burial depths and distances to the receiver, and for parameters relevant to seismo-acoustic detection of land mines and other buried objects.
131(2012); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3682048View Description Hide Description
This paper investigates the scattering of scalar and elastic waves in two-phase materials and single-mineral-cubic, hexagonal, orthorhombic-polycrystalline aggregates with randomly oriented grains. Based on the Dyson equation for the mean field, explicit expressions for the imaginary part of Green’s function in the frequency-wavenumber domain (ω, p), also known as the spectral function, are derived. This approach allows the identification of propagating modes with their relative contribution, and the computation of both attenuation and phase velocity for each mode. The results should be valid from the Rayleigh (low-frequency) to the geometrical optics (high-frequency) regime. Comparisons with other approaches are presented for both scalar and elastic waves.
131(2012); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3681923View Description Hide Description
A method is described for solving the inverse problem of determining the profile of an acoustic horn when time-domain reflectance (TDR) is known only at the entrance. The method involves recasting Webster’s horn equation in terms of forward and backward propagating wave variables. An essential feature of this method is a requirement that the backward propagating wave be continuous at the wave-front at all locations beyond the entrance. Derivation of the inverse solution raises questions about the meaning of causality in the context of wave propagation in non-uniform tubes. Exact reflectance expressions are presented for infinite exponential, conical and parabolic horns based on exact solutions of the horn equation. Diameter functions obtained with the inverse solution are a good match to all three horn profiles.
131(2012); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3682037View Description Hide Description
The scattering of a scalar wave propagating in a waveguide containing weak penetrable scatterers is inspected in the Born approximation. The scatterers are of arbitrary shape and present a contrast both in density and in wavespeed (or bulk modulus), a situation that can be translated in the context of SH waves, water waves, or transverse electric/transverse magnetic polarized electromagnetic waves. For small size inclusions compared to the waveguide height, analytical expressions of the transmission and reflection coefficients are derived, and compared to results of direct numerical simulations. The cases of periodically and randomly distributed inclusions are considered in more detail, and compared with unbounded propagation through inclusions. Comparisons with previous results valid in the low frequency regime are proposed.
On acoustic propagation in three-dimensional rectangular ducts with flexible walls and porous liningsa)131(2012); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3683256View Description Hide Description
The focus of this article is toward the development of hybrid analytic-numerical mode-matching methods for model problems involving three-dimensional ducts of rectangular cross-section and with flexible walls. Such methods require first closed form analytic expressions for the natural fluid-structure coupled waveforms that propagate in each duct section and second the corresponding orthogonality relations. It is demonstrated how recent theory [Lawrie, Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 465, 2347–2367 (2009)] may be extended to a wide class of three-dimensional ducts, for example, those with a flexible wall and a porous lining (modeled as an equivalent fluid) or those with a flexible internal structure, such as a membrane (the “drum-like” silencer). Two equivalent expressions for the eigenmodes of a given duct can be formulated. For the ducts considered herein, the first ansatz is dependent on the eigenvalues/eigenfunctions appropriate for wave propagation in the corresponding two-dimensional flexible-walled duct, whereas the second takes the form of a Fourier series. The latter offers two advantages: no “root-finding” is involved and the method is appropriate for ducts in which the flexible wall is orthotropic. The first ansatz, however, provides important information about the orthogonality properties of the three-dimensional eigenmodes.
131(2012); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3681933View Description Hide Description
The effect of dissipation on the real part of the admittance of an elastic half-space is typically thought to be unimportant if the loss factor ζ of the elastic medium is small. However, dissipation induces losses in the near field of the source and, provided the size of the source is small enough, this phenomenon can be more important than elastic wave radiation. Such losses give rise to a fundamental limit in the quality factor of an oscillator attached to a substrate. Near field losses associated with strains in the elastic substrate can actually be larger than intrinsic losses in the oscillator itself if the internal friction of the substrate is larger than the internal friction of the oscillator. For a uniform stress applied to a disk of radius a, a monopole source, such phenomena become significant for , while for higher order multipole sources of order , near field losses are important for , a far less restrictive constraint.