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Education in acoustics and speech science using vocal-tract modelsa)
a)Portions of this work were presented at the Fourth Joint Meeting of the Acoustical Society of America and the Acoustical Society of Japan, Waikiki, Hawaii, in November 2006, at Interspeech, Brisbane, Australia, in September 2008, and at Interspeech, Brighton, U.K., in September 2009.
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10.1121/1.3677245
/content/asa/journal/jasa/131/3/10.1121/1.3677245
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/asa/journal/jasa/131/3/10.1121/1.3677245
View: Figures

Figures

Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

Cross-sectional diagram of the three-tube model (from Arai, 2006a).

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

(Color online) Sliding three-tube model with an electrolarynx (adapted from Arai, 2006a).

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

(Color online) The instructions for the handicraft of the simple whistle.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

(Color online) The instructions for the handicraft of the slider.

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

(Color online) Vocal-tract models: (a) the head-shaped model with the lung model, (b) the flexible-tongue model, and (c) the cylinder-type models (/i/, /e/, /a/, /o/, and /u/ from left to right).

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

(Color online) The instructions for the handicraft of the reed mouthpiece.

Image of FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

(Color online) Simple approximation of the resonance frequencies of the sliding three-tube model.

Image of FIG. 8.
FIG. 8.

Measured formants and underlying resonances produced by the sliding three-tube model (adapted from Arai, 2006a).

Image of FIG. 9.
FIG. 9.

(Color online) Three versions of reed-type sound sources for the handicraft of the sliding vocal-tract model.

Image of FIG. 10.
FIG. 10.

(Color online) Small lung model, (a) inhalation and (b) exhalation (adapted from Arai, 2007).

Image of FIG. 11.
FIG. 11.

(Color online) F1–F2 plot of the measured vowels (from Arai, 2009a). (a) When the diameter of the constriction d = 10 mm. The length of the constriction 2 = 40, 50, 60, and 70 mm was used as a parameter to draw the four trajectories. (b) When the diameter of the constriction d = 20 mm. The length of the constriction 2 = 50 mm was used.

Image of FIG. 12.
FIG. 12.

(Color online) The sliding vocal-tract model with laryngeal constriction and lip rounding (from Arai, 2009a).

Image of FIG. 13.
FIG. 13.

(Color online) A slider with a mechanism to vary the area of the constriction (from Arai, 2009a). A user can rotate and change the angle of the two semi-cylindrical parts so that the area for the tongue constriction can be changed. The schematic cross sections are also drawn.

Image of FIG. 14.
FIG. 14.

(Color online) The connected-tube models (/i/, /e/, /a/, /o/, and /u/ from left to right).

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/content/asa/journal/jasa/131/3/10.1121/1.3677245
2012-03-15
2014-04-16
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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Education in acoustics and speech science using vocal-tract modelsa)
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/asa/journal/jasa/131/3/10.1121/1.3677245
10.1121/1.3677245
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