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Evaluating acoustic speaker normalization algorithms: Evidence from longitudinal child data
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10.1121/1.3682061
/content/asa/journal/jasa/131/3/10.1121/1.3682061
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/asa/journal/jasa/131/3/10.1121/1.3682061

Figures

Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

Correlation between impressionistic BAT raising code and AAVE use as measured by FPU (DDM). The attached bars are a histogram of the distribution of the BAT raising code and AAVE use as measured by FPU (DDM).

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.
Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

Semi-partial R 2 for the IV BAT from each regression for the BAT vowel class. The chart lists the actual semi-partial R 2 associated with F 2 and F 1 for each regression listed by the normalization technique, along with the results of the F test listed in F 2, F 1 order. * = p < 0.05, ** = p < 0.01, *** = p < 0.001.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

Semi-partial R 2 for the IV GRADE from each regression by vowel class. The charts list the actual semi-partial R 2 associated with F 2 and F 1 for each regression listed by the normalization technique, along with the results of the F test listed in F 2, F 1 order. *= p < 0.05, ** = p < 0.01, *** = p < 0.001, Model ns indicates that the regression model did not reach significance. ns indicates that the beta value for the independent variable did not reach significance in the model.

Tables

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TABLE I.

Normalization techniques: (Fnorm = normalized value of a single token on n formant dimension; F ni  = individual token on n formant dimension).

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TABLE II.

Normalization method comparison studies listed by comparison technique.

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TABLE III.

Token counts by age-grade and vowel class.

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TABLE IV.

Significant semi-partial R 2 for grade by vowel class.

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/content/asa/journal/jasa/131/3/10.1121/1.3682061
2012-03-15
2014-04-24
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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Evaluating acoustic speaker normalization algorithms: Evidence from longitudinal child data
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/asa/journal/jasa/131/3/10.1121/1.3682061
10.1121/1.3682061
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