1887
banner image
No data available.
Please log in to see this content.
You have no subscription access to this content.
No metrics data to plot.
The attempt to load metrics for this article has failed.
The attempt to plot a graph for these metrics has failed.
A study of high front vowels with articulatory data and acoustic simulations
Rent:
Rent this article for
USD
10.1121/1.3692246
/content/asa/journal/jasa/131/4/10.1121/1.3692246
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/asa/journal/jasa/131/4/10.1121/1.3692246

Figures

Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

Examples of reference points P1–P4 and P0 for gridline construction: P1—alveolar ridge; P2—most superior point on the hard palate; P3—superior rear pharyngeal wall; P4—inferior rear pharyngeal wall; P0—center of the circle through P1, P2, and P3. The joint (x, y)-distribution of the points estimated from all the vowels traced for the given speaker is summarized by plotting the 2-σ ellipses. (a) reference points on a token of the vowel /i/ produced by speaker L78/79 of North American English described in Munhall et al. (1994); (b) reference points on a token of the vowel /i/ produced by Chinese speaker OSA described in Ohnesorg and Svarný (1955); (c) reference points on a token of the vowel /i/ French speaker S3 described in Bothorel et al. (1986).

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

Examples of measurement gridlines on the same vocal tracts as in Fig. 1. Round-numbered (10, 20, … 50) gridlines are labeled. (a) Gridlines over the same token of the vowel /i/ produced by speaker L78/79 of North American English as in Fig. 1; (b) gridlines over the same token of the vowel /i/ produced by Chinese speaker OSA in Fig. 1; (c) gridlines over the same token of the vowel /i/ French speaker S3 in Fig. 1.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

Sample vocal tract cross-dimension functions and constrictions. The x-axis shows the normalized axial position as a fraction of the distance measured along the vocal tract midline from the most inferior gridline to the upper incisors. The y-axis shows the normalized midsagittal cross-dimension measured along the gridline, expressed as a fraction of the mean (across tokens produced by this speaker) of the maximum cross-distances in the vocal tract back cavity. The dotted vertical line () identifies the gridline closest to the tip of the upper incisors. The dash-dotted vertical line (- ·) identifies the approximate posterior boundary of the hard palate. Gridlines identified as being “in the constriction” of the vowel by the algorithm in Jackson and McGowan (2010) are plotted with “○.” The double-headed arrow labeled “front” shows the region of the vocal tract acoustically modeled as the front tube. The double-headed arrow labeled “back” shows the region acoustically modeled as the back cavity. Note that the laryngeal vestibule does not appear in this figure because it is modeled as the space below the first gridline. (a) Vocal tract cross-dimension function and constriction for one token of /i/ produced by speaker S3 from Bothorel et al. (1986). (b) Vocal tract cross-dimension function and constriction for one token of /y/ produced by the same speaker.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

Token of L73/74’s production of /i/ for synthesis that is used as a base for cross-language comparisons of /i/. (a) The vertical axis is in cm for cross-distance (left scale) and cm2 for cross-sectional area (right scale). Dark line represents cross-distances and the lighter line represents cross-sectional area. The horizontal axis is normalized axial location. Acoustic sensitivity functions (dimensionless) for (b) F1, (c) F2, and (d) F3 as a function of the normalized axial location are shown. The vertical lines in (b)–(d) denote the extent of the constriction.

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

Vocal tract cross-dimension functions for the front vowels of North American English. The x- and y-axis scales are as in Fig. 2. The dotted vertical line () identifies the gridline closest to the tip of the upper incisors. The dash-dotted vertical line (- ·.) identifies the approximate posterior boundary of the hard palate. (a) Vowels produced by the speaker in Perkell (1969). (b) Box plots for the front vowels produced by the speaker L73/74 from Munhall et al. (1994). (c) Box plots for the front vowels produced by the speaker L78/79 from Munhall et al. (1994). The number of tokens analyzed for each vowel is given in Table V.

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

Vocal tract cross-dimension functions for the front vowels of French. The x- and y-axis scales are as in Fig. 2. The dotted vertical line () identifies the gridline closest to the tip of the upper incisors. The dash-dotted vertical line (- ·) identifies the approximate posterior boundary of the hard palate. (a) Vowels produced by speaker S1 from Bothorel et al. (1986). (b) Vowels produced by speaker S2 from Bothorel et al. (1986). (c) Vowels produced by speaker S3 from Bothorel et al. (1986). (d) Vowels produced by speaker S4 from Bothorel et al. (1986).

Image of FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

Vocal tract cross-dimension functions for the front vowels of Mandarin Chinese. The x- and y-axis scales are as in Fig. 2. The dotted vertical line () identifies the gridline closest to the tip of the upper incisors. The dash-dotted vertical line (- ·) identifies the approximate posterior boundary of the hard palate. (a) Vowels produced by speaker OSA from Ohnesorg and Svarný (1955); (b) Vowels produced by speaker OSB from Ohnesorg and Svarný (1955); (c) Box plots for the front vowels produced by speaker A1 from Abramson et al. (1962); (d) Vowels produced by speaker A4 from Abramson et al. (1962).

Image of FIG. 8.
FIG. 8.

Sensitivity functions after excess length and lip rounding have been added to the configuration in Fig. 3 in order to simulate a French and Mandarin “rounded /i/.” (a) The vertical axis is in cm for cross-distance (left scale) and cm2 for cross-sectional area (right scale). Dark line represents cross-distances and the lighter line represents cross-sectional area. The horizontal axis is normalized axial location. Acoustic sensitivity functions (dimensionless) for (b) F1, (c) F2, and (d) F3 as a function of the normalized axial location are shown. The vertical lines in (b)–(d) denote the extent of the constriction.

Image of FIG. 9.
FIG. 9.

Front vowel tokens that appear to have elevated tongue tip/blade. (a) A token of /i/ from North American English produced by the speaker in Perkell (1969). (b) a token of /i/ from French produced by speaker S1 in Bothorel et al. (1986). (c) A token of /i/ from Chinese produced by speaker A4 from Abramson et al. (1962). (d) A token of /i/ from Chinese produced by speaker A1 from Abramson et al. (1962).

Image of FIG. 10.
FIG. 10.

Front vowel tokens that appear to have depressed tongue tip/blade. (a) A token of /i/ from North American English produced by speaker L78 from Munhall et al. (1994). (b) Another token of /i/ from the same speaker. (c) A token of /i/ from Chinese produced by OSA from Ohnesorg and Svarný (1955). (d) A token of /y/ from Chinese produced by the same speaker.

Tables

Generic image for table
Generic image for table
Generic image for table
Generic image for table
Generic image for table
Generic image for table
Generic image for table
Generic image for table
Generic image for table
Generic image for table
Generic image for table
TABLE I.

Summary of languages, speakers, vowels, and number of tokens used to construct measurement gridlines in this study.

Generic image for table
TABLE II.

Summary of articulatory measures from North American English speakers.

Generic image for table
TABLE III.

Summary of articulatory measures from French speakers.

Generic image for table
TABLE IV.

Summary of articulatory measures from Mandarin Chinese speakers

Generic image for table
TABLE V.

Results of two-factor MANOVA of North American English /i/ and /ɪ/ with articulatory measures as dependent variables, and Speaker and Vowel as independent variables. “Speaker* Vowel” indicates the MANOVA interaction term. The values of F and the significance level p were calculated by the SPSS GLM procedure. Where the multivariate test does not indicate p < 0.01, the values of F and p for the individual dependent variables are only provided for completeness; they do not indicate significance.

Generic image for table
TABLE VI.

Results of MANOVA of /i/ in North American English, French, and Mandarin Chinese with articulatory measures as dependent variables, and Language and Speaker as independent variables. “Language* Speaker” indicates the MANOVA nested interaction term. The values of F and the significance level p were calculated by the SPSS GLM procedure. Where the multivariate test does not indicate p < 0.01, the values of F and p for the individual dependent variables are only provided for completeness; they do not indicate significance.

Generic image for table
TABLE VII.

Results of MANOVA of /i/ and /y/ in French and Mandarin Chinese with articulatory measures as dependent variables, and Language, Vowel, and Speaker as independent variables. “Language*Speaker” indicates the MANOVA nested interaction term. The values of F and the significance level p were calculated by the SPSS GLM procedure. Where the multivariate test does not indicate p < 0.01, the values of F and p for the individual dependent variables are only provided for completeness; they do not indicate significance.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/asa/journal/jasa/131/4/10.1121/1.3692246
2012-04-12
2014-04-21
Loading

Full text loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: A study of high front vowels with articulatory data and acoustic simulations
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/asa/journal/jasa/131/4/10.1121/1.3692246
10.1121/1.3692246
SEARCH_EXPAND_ITEM