Volume 131, Issue 5, May 2012
- jasa express letters
- letters to the editor
- general linear acoustics 
- nonlinear acoustics 
- aeroacoustics, atmospheric sound 
- underwater sound 
- ultrasonics, quantum acoustics, and physical effects of sound 
- transduction 
- structural acoustics and vibration 
- architectural acoustics 
- acoustical measurements and instrumentation 
- acoustic signal processing 
- physiological acoustics 
- psychological acoustics 
- speech production 
- speech perception 
- speech processing and communication systems 
- music and musical instruments 
- bioacoustics 
- underwater sound 
- acoustical news
- acoustical standards news
- reviews of acoustical patents
Index of content:
- JASA EXPRESS LETTERS
131(2012); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3695407View Description Hide Description
This study reports an investigation of the well-known context-dependent variation in English /r/ using a biomechanical tongue-jaw-hyoid model. The simulation results show that preferred /r/ variants require less volume displacement, relative strain, and relative muscle stress than variants that are not preferred. This study also uncovers a previously unknown mechanism in tongue biomechanics for /r/ production: Torque in the sagittal plane about the mental spine. This torque enables raising of the tongue anterior for retroflexed [ɻ] by activation of hyoglossus and relaxation of anterior genioglossus. The results provide a deeper understanding of the articulatory factors that govern contextual phonetic variation.
131(2012); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3697530View Description Hide Description
A frequency bin-wise nonlinear masking algorithm is proposed in the spectrogram domain for speech segregation in convolutive mixtures. The contributive weight from each speech source to a time-frequency unit of the mixture spectrogram is estimated by a nonlinear function based on location cues. For each sound source, a non-binary mask is formed from the estimated weights and is multiplied to the mixture spectrogram to extract the sound. Head-related transfer functions (HRTFs) are used to simulate convolutive sound mixtures perceived by listeners. Simulation results show our proposed method outperforms convolutive independent component analysis and degenerate unmixing and estimation technique methods in almost all test conditions.
131(2012); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3697534View Description Hide Description
Spectro-temporal modulations of speech encode speech structures and speaker characteristics. An algorithm which distinguishes speech from non-speech based on spectro-temporal modulation energies is proposed and evaluated in robust text-independent closed-set speaker identification simulations using the TIMIT and GRID corpora. Simulation results show the proposed method produces much higher speaker identification rates in all signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) conditions than the baseline system using mel-frequency cepstral coefficients. In addition, the proposed method also outperforms the system, which uses auditory-based nonnegative tensor cepstral coefficients [Q. Wu and L. Zhang, “Auditory sparse representation for robust speaker recognition based on tensor structure,” EURASIP J. Audio, Speech, Music Process. 2008, 578612 (2008)], in low SNR (≤ 10 dB) conditions.
131(2012); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3699532View Description Hide Description
Correlations between ultrasonicguided wavevelocities and bone properties were investigated in bovine tibia in vitro. The velocities of the first arriving signal and the slow guided wave, termed V FAS and V SGW, along the long axis of the tibia were measured at 200 kHz in 20 bovine tibiae using the axial transmission technique. V FAS yielded significant negative correlation coefficients of −0.54 to −0.66 with the bone properties. In contrast, V SGW yielded strong positive correlation coefficients of 0.68–0.84. The best univariate predictor of V FAS and V SGW was the cortical thickness yielding adjusted squared correlation coefficients of 0.41 and 0.69, respectively.
Cochlear implant patients’ localization using interaural level differences exceeds that of untrained normal hearing listeners131(2012); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3699017View Description Hide Description
Bilateral cochlear implant patients are unable to localize as well as normal hearing listeners. Although poor sensitivity to interaural time differences clearly contributes to this deficit, it is unclear whether deficits in terms of interaural level differences are also a contributing factor. In this study, localization was tested while manipulating interaural time and level cues using head-related transfer functions. The results indicate that bilateral cochlear implant users’ ability to localize based on interaural level differences is actually greater than that of untrained normal hearing listeners.
131(2012); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3701707View Description Hide Description
Though referred to as noise, the ambient oceansoundscape carries valuable information about the physical ocean environment. To study this information, Kuperman and Ingenito introduced a model for spatial coherence in a depth stratified ocean arising from the vertically directive diffuse acoustic noise produced by bubbles distributed throughout the surface. Here the model is adapted to incorporate horizontal directivity as well, making it possible to include additional noise contributions from directive features such as storms, biologics, shipping, and wave breaking. As an analytic approach, the model can serve as a computationally light complement to existing methods.
131(2012); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3699533View Description Hide Description
This paper presents a low profile imagingdevice using only one piezoelectric transducer and a microphone. The transducer is glued to an aluminum plate of non-regular geometry that acts as an acoustic cavity. Beam steering is achieved, and the acoustic waves should be focused anywhere in front of the plate. Finally, using a single microphone receiver working in echographic mode, our imagingdevice is able to locate any object placed in front of it.
131(2012); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3702792View Description Hide Description
A method for detectingvocalization of giant barred frogs (Mixophyes iteratus) in noisy audio is proposed. Audio recordings from remote wireless sensor nodes were segmented into individual sounds and from each sound a small set of features was extracted. Feature vectors were compared to those of example calls using a Euclidean distance formula as a detection system. The system achieved a sensitivity of 0.85 with specificity of 0.92 when distinguishing M. iteratus calls from other species’ calls and sensitivity of 0.88 with specificity 0.82 against background noise.
Native dialect influences second-language vowel perception: Peruvian versus Iberian Spanish learners of Dutch131(2012); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3701708View Description Hide Description
Peruvian Spanish (PS) and Iberian Spanish (IS) learners were tested on their ability to categorically discriminate and identify Dutch vowels. It was predicted that the acoustic differences between the vowel productions of the two dialects, which compare differently to Dutch vowels, would manifest in differential L2 perception for listeners of these two dialects. The results show that although PS learners had higher general L2 proficiency, IS learners were more accurate at discriminating all five contrasts and at identifying six of the L2 Dutch vowels. These findings confirm that acoustic differences in native vowel production lead to differential L2 vowel perception.
131(2012); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3702791View Description Hide Description
Multibubble sonoluminescence pulses of Na and continuum emissions were measured from NaCl-ethylene glycol solution saturated with Xe at 28 kHz. The Na emission consisted of multiple-peak pulses and single pulses. The intrinsic pulse width estimated from single pulses was 0.37 ns, which differs from 10–165 ns obtained by previous work. High-speed shadowgraphs of bubble dynamics and high-speed movies () of sonoluminescence were observed. The observations suggest that the multiple-peak pulse is due to the superposition of single peaks resulting from bubbles fragmented from a characteristic bubble which repeats the fragmentation and coalescence. This phenomenon may be specific to viscous liquids.
- LETTERS TO THE EDITOR
131(2012); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3651236View Description Hide Description
This research compared the abilities of children and adults to perceive an optimal tempo for pieces of music. Participants heard eight melodies played at a range of tempi and made a 2AFC of “too fast” or “too slow” for each presentation. Children (aged between 5 to 11 years) and adults (aged between 17 to 54 years) showed the same variation in perceived optimal tempi across melodies. The same variation in optimal tempi was also observed when pitch variations were removed. This suggests that the rhythmical structure was responsible for the perceived optimal tempi for these pieces of music.
Response to “Comments on ‘A field study of the exposure-annoyance relationship of military shooting noise’ ” [J. Acoust. Soc. Am.127, 2301–2311 (2010)] (L)131(2012); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3699263View Description Hide Description
This letter is a response to Meyer’s recent paper [“Comment on ‘A field study of the exposure-annoyance relationship of military shooting noise,’ ” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 130, 677–678 (2011)]. The authors describe that “explained variance” in noise annoyance surveys can mean different things and that the fit parameters of the statistical models reported in the commented article are well within an expectable range. It is discussed that non-dose-related factors for the prediction of noise annoyance have become increasingly important in the last years and deserve to be more thoroughly studied.
- GENERAL LINEAR ACOUSTICS 
131(2012); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3695398View Description Hide Description
The frequency-wavenumber spectra of laminated media often exhibit anomalous modes with descending branches whose group velocity is negative, and these terminate at a minimum point at which the group velocity transitions from negative to positive. These minima are associated with resonant conditions in the medium, which have been clearly observed in experiments and in the nondestructive testing of laminated plates. Starting from first principles, this paper provides a theoretical analysis on the number and location of such zero-group-velocity (ZGV) modes for horizontally layered media bounded by any arbitrary combination of external boundaries. It is found that these ZGV points are few in number and show up mostly in low-order modes which are characterized by a negative second derivative at the cutoff frequencies, a condition that can readily be tested. It is also shown that the effective number of ZGVs is small even when the ratio of the dilatational and shear wave velocity is a rational number and there exist coincidences in cutoff frequencies, a condition that at first would suggest that the number of ZGVs is infinite. Finally, it is shown that the number of ZGVs decreases with the Poisson’s ratio.
131(2012); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3701880View Description Hide Description
The generalized optical theorem is an integral relation for the angle-dependent scattering amplitude of an inhomogeneous scattering object embedded in a homogeneous background. It has been derived separately for several scalar and vectorial wave phenomena. Here a unified optical theorem is derived that encompasses the separate versions for scalar and vectorial waves. Moreover, this unified theorem also holds for scattering by anisotropic elastic and piezoelectric scatterers as well as bianisotropic (non-reciprocal) EM scatterers.
131(2012); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3693658View Description Hide Description
An implementation of a quarter-wavelength standing wave separator that exploits an air drum to achieve the pressure node is presented and characterized experimentally. The air drum configuration was implemented and tested in a set-up with a 40 kHz transducer immersed in a water tank with the quarter-wavelength gap being approximately 9 mm wide. Injection of suspensions of 5 μm and 45 μm diameter polystyrene particles at flow rates of 30 ml/h and 60 ml/h was studied and particle deflection towards the pressure node at the air drum surface was observed for a range of acoustic pressures. Computational results on single particle trajectories show good agreement with the experimental findings for the 45 μm particles, but not for the 5 μm particles. These were considered to behave as aggregates of higher effective dimension, due to their much higher number density relative to the 45 μm particles in the suspensions used. The set-up developed in this study includes a robust method for achieving a pressure node in a quarter-wavelength system and can represent the first step toward the development of an alternative separator configuration in respect to small channel MHz range operated systems for the manipulation of particles streams.
131(2012); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3699196View Description Hide Description
A numerical model based on a hybrid finite element method is developed that seeks to join sound pressure fields in interior and exterior regions. The hybrid method is applied to the analysis of sound radiation from open pipes, or ducts, and uses mode matching to couple a finite element discretization of the region surrounding the open end of the duct to wave based modal expansions for adjoining interior and exterior regions. The hybrid method facilitates the analysis of ducts of arbitrary but uniform cross section as well the study of conical flanges and here a modal expansion based on spherical harmonics is applied. Predictions are benchmarked against analytic solutions for the limiting cases of flanged and unflanged circular ducts and excellent agreement between the two methods is observed. Predictions are also presented for flanged and unflanged rectangular ducts, and because the hybrid method retains the sparse banded and symmetric matrices of the traditional finite element method, it is shown that predictions can be obtained within an acceptable time frame even for a three dimensional problem.
- NONLINEAR ACOUSTICS 
131(2012); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3693654View Description Hide Description
A nodal discontinuous Galerkin finite element method (DG-FEM) to solve the linear and nonlinear elastic wave equation in heterogeneous media with arbitrary high order accuracy in space on unstructured triangular or quadrilateral meshes is presented. This DG-FEM method combines the geometrical flexibility of the finite element method, and the high parallelization potentiality and strongly nonlinear wave phenomena simulation capability of the finite volume method, required for nonlinear elastodynamics simulations. In order to facilitate the implementation based on a numerical scheme developed for electromagnetic applications, the equations of nonlinear elastodynamics have been written in a conservative form. The adopted formalism allows the introduction of different kinds of elastic nonlinearities, such as the classical quadratic and cubic nonlinearities, or the quadratic hysteretic nonlinearities. Absorbing layers perfectly matched to the calculation domain of the nearly perfectly matched layers type have been introduced to simulate, when needed, semi-infinite or infinite media. The developed DG-FEM scheme has been verified by means of a comparison with analytical solutions and numerical results already published in the literature for simple geometrical configurations: Lamb’s problem and plane wave nonlinear propagation.
131(2012); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3699204View Description Hide Description
Acoustic radiation force exerted by standing waves on particles is analyzed using a finite difference time domain Lagrangian method. This method allows the acoustic radiation force to be obtained directly from the solution of nonlinear fluid equations, without any assumptions on size or geometry of the particles, boundary conditions, or acoustic field amplitude. The model converges to analytical results in the limit of small particle radii and low field amplitudes, where assumptions within the analytical models apply. Good agreement with analytical and numerical models based on solutions of linear scattering problems is observed for compressible particles, whereas some disagreement is detected when the compressibility of the particles decreases.
- AEROACOUSTICS, ATMOSPHERIC SOUND 
A model for the vertical sound speed and absorption profiles in Titan’s atmosphere based on Cassini-Huygens data131(2012); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3699217View Description Hide Description
Measurements of thermodynamic quantities in Titan’s atmosphere during the descent of Huygens in 2005 are used to predict the vertical profiles for the speed and intrinsic attenuation (or absorption) of sound. The calculations are done using one author’s previous model modified to accommodate non-ideal equations of state. The vertical temperature profile places the tropopause about 40 km above the surface. In the model, a binary nitrogen-methane composition is assumed for Titan’s atmosphere, quantified by the methane fraction measured by the gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer (GCMS) onboard Huygens. To more accurately constrain the acoustic wave number, the variation of thermophysical properties (specific heats,viscosity, and thermal conductivity) with altitude is included via data extracted from the NIST Chemistry WebBook [URL webbook.nist.gov, National Institute of Standards and Technology Chemistry WebBook (Last accessed 10/20/2011)]. The predicted speed of sound profile fits well inside the spread of the data recorded by Huygens’ active acoustic sensor. In the N2-dominated atmosphere, the sound waves have negligible relaxational dispersion and mostly classical (thermo-viscous) absorption. The cold and dense environment of Titan can sustain acoustic waves over large distances with relatively small transmission losses, as evidenced by the small absorption. A ray-tracing program is used to assess the bounds imposed by the zonal wind—measured by the Doppler Wind Experiment on Huygens—on long-range propagation.
131(2012); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3699174View Description Hide Description
On clear dry nights over flat land, a temperature inversion and stable nocturnal wind jet lead to an acoustic duct in the lowest few hundred meters of the atmosphere. An impulsive signal propagating in such a duct is received at long ranges from the source as an extended wave train consisting of a series of weakly dispersed distinct arrivals followed by a strongly dispersed low-frequency tail. The leading distinct arrivals have been previously shown to be well modeled by geometric acoustics. In this paper, the geometric acoustics approximation for the leading arrivals is investigated. Using the solutions of the eikonal and transport equations, travel times, amplitudes, and caustic structures of the distinct arrivals have been determined. The time delay between and relative amplitudes of the direct-refracted and single ground reflection arrivals have been investigated as parameters for an inversion scheme. A two parameter quadratic approximation to the effective sound speed profile has been fit and found to be in strong agreement with meteorological measurements from the time of propagation.