Volume 131, Issue 6, June 2012
- jasa express letters
- general linear acoustics 
- nonlinear acoustics 
- aeroacoustics, atmospheric sound 
- underwater sound 
- ultrasonics, quantum acoustics, and physical effects of sound 
- transduction 
- structural acoustics and vibration 
- architectural acoustics 
- acoustic signal processing 
- physiological acoustics 
- psychological acoustics 
- speech perception 
- music and musical instruments 
- bioacoustics 
- acoustical news
- reviews of acoustical patents
Index of content:
- JASA EXPRESS LETTERS
131(2012); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.4710838View Description Hide Description
Auditory enhancement of certain frequencies can occur through prior stimulation of surrounding frequency regions. The underlying neural mechanisms are unknown, but may involve stimulus-driven changes in cochlear gain via the medial olivocochlear complex (MOC) efferents. Cochlear implants (CIs) bypass the cochlea and stimulate the auditory nerve directly. If the MOC plays a critical role in enhancement then CI users should not exhibit this effect. Results using vowel stimuli, with and without preceding sounds designed to enhance formants, provided evidence of auditory enhancement in both normal-hearing listeners and CI users, suggesting that vowel enhancement is not mediated solely by cochlear effects.
131(2012); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.4710836View Description Hide Description
Intonation perception of English speech was examined for English- and Chinese-native listeners. F0 contour was manipulated from falling to rising patterns for the final words of three sentences. Listener’s task was to identify and discriminate the intonation of each sentence (question versus statement). English and Chinese listeners had significant differences in the identification functions such as the categorical boundary and the slope. In the discrimination functions, Chinese listeners showed greater peakedness than English peers. The cross-linguistic differences in intonation perception were similar to the previous findings in perception of lexical tones, likely due to listeners’ language background differences.
Sound propagation in saturated gas-vapor-droplet suspensions with droplet evaporation and nonlinear relaxation131(2012); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.4710835View Description Hide Description
The Sound attenuation and dispersion in saturated gas-vapor-droplet mixture in the presence of evaporation has been investigated theoretically. The theory is based on an extension of the work of Davidson [J. Atmos. Sci. 32(11), 2201–2205 (1975)] to accommodate the effects of nonlinear particle relaxation processes of mass, momentum and energy transfer on sound attenuation and dispersion. The results indicate the existence of a spectral broadening effect in the attenuation coefficient (scaled with respect to the peak value) with a decrease in droplet mass concentration. It is further shown that for large values of the droplet concentration the scaled attenuation coefficient is characterized by a universal spectrum independent of droplet mass concentration.
131(2012); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.4711075View Description Hide Description
In 1985, Tappert and Nghiem-Phu introduced a field-transformation technique for computing rough surfacescattering from a parabolic equation model utilizing a split-step Fourier marching algorithm. The approach was based on a two-dimensional parabolic equation with a standard operator approximation that was capable of computing scattering from a one-dimensional rough surface. Although this approach has been used extensively and effectively, extensions of this approach to higher order approximations or three-dimensional propagation have only recently been investigated. In this work, the expressions that incorporate higher-order approximations and three-dimensional scattering from two-dimensional rough surfaces are presented. The implications of some computationally necessary approximations are also provided.
131(2012); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.4710837View Description Hide Description
Franciscana dolphins are small odontocetes hard to study in the field. In particular, little is known on their echolocation behavior in the wild. In this study we recorded 357 min and analyzed 1019 echolocation signals in the Rio Negro Estuary, Argentina. The clicks had a peak frequency at 139 kHz, and a bandwidth of 19 kHz, ranging from 130 to 149 kHz. This is the first study describing echolocation signals of franciscana dolphins in the wild, showing the presence of narrow-band high frequency signals in these dolphins. Whether they use other vocalizations to communicate or not remains uncertain.
131(2012); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.4710834View Description Hide Description
Biot’s theory of wave propagation in porous media includes a characteristic frequency which is used to distinguish the low-frequency from the high-frequency range. Its determination is based on an investigation of fluid flow through different pore geometries on a smaller scale and a subsequent upscaling process. This idea is limited due to the assumptions made on the smaller scale. It can be enhanced for a general two-phase system by three properties: Inertia of the solid,elasticity of the solid, and frequency dependent corrections of the momentum exchange. They become important for highly porous media with liquids.
131(2012); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.4710952View Description Hide Description
The presence of a “ladder” structure in the airfoil tonal noise was discovered in the 1970s, but its mechanism hitherto remains a subject of continual investigation in the research community. Based on the measured noise results and some numerical analysis presented in this letter, the variations of four types of airfoil tonal noise frequencies with the flow velocity were analyzed individually. The ladder structure is proposed to be caused by the acoustic/hydrodynamic frequency lag between the scattering of the boundary layer instabilitynoise and the discrete noise produced by an aeroacoustic feedback loop.
131(2012); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.4718592View Description Hide Description
Power iterated single-channel time-reversal is extended to employ Lanczos iterations. The properties of these algorithms are studied in the presence of varying levels of noise and broadband clutter. It is shown the Lanczos iterated method possesses superior convergence properties in comparison to the standard power iterated technique. Results demonstrate that such algorithms provide an efficient means through which to isolate and extract the properties of resonant scatterers in the presence of noise and coherent interference.
131(2012); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.4718384View Description Hide Description
The band structure of a two-dimensional granular crystal composed of silicone rubber and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) cylinders is investigated numerically. This system was previously shown to undergo a pattern transformation with uniaxial compression by Göncü et al. [Soft Matter 7, 2321 (2011)]. The dispersion relations of the crystal are computed at different levels of deformation to demonstrate the tunability of the band structure, which is strongly affected by the pattern transformation that induces new band gaps. Replacement of PTFE particles with rubber ones reveals that the change of the band structure is essentially governed by pattern transformation rather than particles’ mechanical properties.
131(2012); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.4722170View Description Hide Description
The parabolic approximation results in a tractible model for studying ultrasound beams, but the limits of validity of the approximation are often presented only qualitatively. In this work the most common model for axisymmetric ultrasound beam propagation, the Kuznetsov–Zabolotskaya–Khokhlov equation, is directly compared with the more general Westervelt equation with regard to diffractive and absorptive effects in continuous wave beams. The parametric study compares the solutions of the two models as a function of source frequency and focusing geometry using peak focal pressure, the axial location at which that peak occurs, and the loss due to absorption as metrics.
131(2012); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.4722169View Description Hide Description
Slope and y-intercepts of locus equations have previously been shown to successfully classify place of articulation for English voiced stop consonants when derived from measurements at vowel onset and vowel midpoint. However, listeners are capable of identifying English voiced stops when less than 30 ms of vowel is presented. The present results show that modified locus equation measurements made within the first several pitch periods of a vowel following an English voiced stop were also successful at classifying place of articulation, consistent with the amount of vocalic information necessary for perceptual identification of English voiced stops /b d g/.
Piecewise coherent mode processing of acoustic data recorded on two horizontally separated vertical line arrays131(2012); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.4722193View Description Hide Description
Abstract: Motivated by measurements made in the 2004 Long-Range Ocean Acoustic Propagation Experiment (LOAPEX), the problem of mode processing transient acoustic signals collected on two nearby vertical line arrays is considered. The first three moments (centroid, variance, and skewness) of broadband distributions of acoustic energy with fixed mode number (referred to as modal group arrivals) are estimated. It is shown that despite the absence of signal coherence between the two arrays and poor high mode number energy resolution, the centroid and variance of these distributions can be estimated with tolerable errors using piecewise coherent mode processing as described in this paper.
131(2012); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.4722172View Description Hide Description
Temporal processing declines with age may reduce the processing of concurrent vowels. For this study, listeners categorized vowel pairs varying in temporal asynchrony as one sound, two overlapping sounds, or two sounds separated by a gap. Two boundaries separating the three response categories, multiplicity and gap-identification, were measured. Compared to young and middle-aged listeners, older listeners required longer temporal offsets for multiplicity. Middle-aged and older listeners also required longer offsets for gap-identification. For older listeners, correlations with various temporal processing tasks indicated that vowel temporal-order thresholds were related to multiplicity, while age and non-speech gap-detection thresholds were related to gap-identification.
131(2012); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.4721647View Description Hide Description
Measurements of the vibrational response of a spherical aluminum shell subject to changes in the interior pressure clearly demonstrate that resonance frequencies shift higher as the pressure is increased. The frequency shift appears to be smaller for longitudinal modes than for bending wave modes. The magnitude of frequency shift is comparable to analytical predictions made for thin cylindrical shells. Changes in the amplitudes of resonance peaks are also observed. A possible application of this result is a method for noninvasively monitoring pressure changes inside sealed containers, including intracranial pressure in humans.
- GENERAL LINEAR ACOUSTICS 
131(2012); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.4711004View Description Hide Description
In the domain of renewable energies, marine current turbines constitute one of the possibilities of producing electrical energy. Naked-eye inspection, or with the aid of video monitoring systems of these machines to ensure their perfect working order, can be difficult in a turbid environment. Acoustic methods are conceivable. The study focuses on the blades of these machines, by considering rectangular plates. The propagation of Lamb waves in a plate is studied by analyzing experimental time signals obtained from acoustic scattering. These signals are analyzed employing the ray theory. In vacuum, the flexural wave is the A 0 Lamb wave, whilst in water this wave splits in a bifurcation: the A wave with a phase velocity always smaller than the sound speed in water, and the A 0 wave with a phase velocity always higher than the sound speed in water. In the central bandpass of the transducers used in the experiments, mainly the A and S 0 waves exist. However, signals observed in the third harmonic bandpass of the transducers are also analyzed. In order to complement these results, resonance frequencies of the plate studied are calculated taking into account the boundary conditions and compared with the resonance frequencies of the experimental spectra.
131(2012); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3703060View Description Hide Description
A laboratory-scale study on acoustic scattering from a single bubble undergoing dissolution in undersaturated fresh water is presented. Several experiments are performed with the acoustic source driven with five-cycle tone bursts, center frequency of 120 kHz, to insonify a single bubble located on axis of the combined beam of the set of transducers. The bubble is placed on a fine nylon thread located in the far field of the transducer set, arranged in bistatic configuration, in a tank filled with undersaturated water.Backscattered waveforms from the bubble target are acquired every few seconds for several hours until the bubble has completely dissolved, and detailed dissolution curves are produced from the acoustic data. The rate of bubbledissolution is calculated using the solution developed by Epstein and Plesset [J. Chem. Phys. 18, 1505–1509 (1950)]. The results of the experiments performed are in agreement with the calculations.
Acoustic fields in binary gas mixtures: Mutual diffusion effects throughout and beyond the boundary layers131(2012); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.4707493View Description Hide Description
The acoustic behavior in thermo-viscous gas mixtures, both in proximity of walls and far from them (outside the boundary layers), involves deviations from the adiabatic and laminar movements in pure gases, which result from the influence of several diffusive fields, namely, shear, entropic, and concentration variation fields (their energy being provided by the acoustic field itself). Owing to the boundary conditions, that are slip condition, isothermal condition and concentration flux vanishing on the walls, a strong coupling between these fields occurs inside the boundary layers while their effects appear to be simple additive processes in the bulk of the medium. Although recent literature on this subject leads to interesting results, opening the way to several new issues [R. Raspet et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 105, 65–73 (1999); R. Raspet et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 112, 1414–1422 (2002); G. W. Swift and P. S. Spoor, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 106, 1794–1800 (1999); D. A. Geller and G. W. Swift, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 111, 1675–1684 (2002)], the results available still have limitations because they do not provide complete solutions for the propagative and diffusive fields throughout and beyond the boundary layers. The present work aims at providing these solutions in the whole domains considered. The results allow interpreting analytically the behavior of the fields above mentioned in closed cavities and ducts, and particularly in spherical cavities which are best suited to develop metrological applications.
131(2012); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.4707485View Description Hide Description
In this paper, a method describing dispersion curve calculation for waves propagating in radially layered, inhomogeneous isotropic elastic waveguides is developed. Particular emphasis is placed on the helical waves with noninteger azimuthal wavenumbers, which can be potentially applied in such fields as nondestructive evaluation, acoustic tomography, etc., stipulating their practical importance. To solve the problem under consideration, the matrix Riccati equation is formulated for an impedance matrix. The use of the latter yields a simple form of the dispersionequation. Numerical computation of dispersion curves can encounter difficulties, which are due to potential singularities of the impedance matrix and the necessity to separate roots of the dispersionequation. These difficulties are overcome by employing the Cayley transform and invoking the parametric continuation method. The method developed by the authors is demonstrated by calculating dispersion diagrams in support of helical waves for several models of practical interest. Such computations for an inhomogeneous layer and its approximation by a set of homogeneous layers using a transfer matrix and Riccati equation methods revealed higher computational accuracy of the latter. Dispersion curves calculated for layers with different types of inhomogeneity demonstrated significant discrepancies at low frequencies.
Asymptotic expansions for the coupled wavenumbers in an infinite orthotropic flexible fluid-filled cylindrical shell131(2012); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.4711003View Description Hide Description
Analytical expressions are found for the coupled wavenumbers in flexible, fluid-filled, circular cylindrical orthotropic shells using the asymptotic methods. These expressions are valid for arbitrary circumferential orders. The Donnell–Mushtari shell theory is used to model the shell and the effect of the fluid is introduced through the fluid-loading parameter μ. The orthotropic problem is posed as a perturbation on the corresponding isotropic problem by defining a suitable orthotropy parameter ε, which is a measure of the degree of orthotropy. For the first study, an isotropic shell is considered (by setting ε = 0) and expansions are found for the coupled wavenumbers using a regular perturbation approach. In the second study, asymptotic expansions are found for the coupled wavenumbers in the limit of small orthotropy . For each study, isotropy and orthotropy, expansions are found for small and large values of the fluid-loading parameter μ. All the asymptotic solutions are compared with numerical solutions to the coupled dispersion relation and the match is seen to be good. The differences between the isotropic and orthotropic solutions are discussed. The main contribution of this work lies in extending the existing literature beyond in vacuo studies to the case of fluid-filled shells (isotropic and orthotropic).
Quantitative estimation of ultrasound beam intensities using infrared thermography—Experimental validation131(2012); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.4711006View Description Hide Description
Infrared (IR) thermography is a technique that has the potential to rapidly and noninvasively determine the intensity fields of ultrasound transducers. In the work described here, IR temperature measurements were made in a tissue phantom sonicated with a high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) transducer, and the intensity fields were determined using a previously published mathematical formulation relating intensity to temperature rise at a tissue/air interface. Intensity fields determined from the IR technique were compared with those derived from hydrophonemeasurements. Focal intensities and beam widths determined via the IR approach agreed with values derived from hydrophonemeasurements to within a relative difference of less than 10%, for a transducer with a gain of 30, and about 13% for a transducer with a gain of 60. At axial locations roughly 1 cm in front (pre-focal) and behind (post-focal) the focus, the agreement with hydrophones for the lower-gain transducer remained comparable to that in the focal plane. For the higher-gain transducer, the agreement with hydrophones at the pre-focal and post-focal locations was around 40%.