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Acoustic and diving behavior of sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus) during natural and depredation foraging in the Gulf of Alaska
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10.1121/1.4726005
/content/asa/journal/jasa/132/1/10.1121/1.4726005
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/asa/journal/jasa/132/1/10.1121/1.4726005

Figures

Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

(Color online) Local bathymetry off Sitka, AK, marked with fishing haul positions for the twotagging examples discussed in detail in Secs.III B and III C. Water depths are shown in meters.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

(Color online) Selected dive and acoustic parameters of a whale displaying resting, natural foraging behavior and deep depredation behavior on 12 June 2009: (a) dive profile; (b) normalized dive inflection rate per hour, Infl, with each bar representing a distinct dive; (c) click rate per second, Cl; (d) mean inter-click-interval ICI per dive, with dotted lines corresponding to one standard deviation; and (e) normalized creak rate per hour, combining creak-only and creak-pause events. The start and end times of the fishing hauls are indicated by the solid and dotted vertical lines, respectively. The shaded areas indicate when the tagged whale was visually sighted surfacing within 400 m of the F/V Cobra for every dive.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

(Color online) Tag parameters of a whale displaying natural foraging and shallow depredation behavior on 17 July 2007, using the same format as Fig. 2. The shaded area indicates when the surfacing whale was visually sighted within 400 m of the F/V Prowler.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

(Color online) Boxplots of five dive parameter distributions, obtained from all tag records, subdivided by behavioral state: (a) surface duration (min); (b) dive duration (min); (c) bottom duration (min); (d) maximum dive depth (m); and (e) normalized dive inflection rate per hour. These parameters are defined in Sec.II C. The box plots show the 5th, 25th, 50th, 75th, and 95th percentile values of the distributions.

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

(Color online) Boxplots of five acoustic parameter distributions, obtained from all tag records, subdivided by behavioral state: (a) time of first click produced (min), relative to start of dive; (b) click rate per s; (c) inter-click interval (s); (d) normalized creak rate per hour (for all creak events); and (e) creak-pause percentage. These parameters are defined in Sec.II D. The box plots show the 5th, 25th, 50th, 75th, and 95th percentile values of the distributions.

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

(Color online) Boxplots of same dive parameters shown in Fig. 4, but only using tag records that display both natural and depredation behavior. For each parameter, distributions are shown for deep and shallow depredation states, along with the distributions for the natural foraging states preceding/following a given depredation behavior. The box plots show the 5th, 25th, 50th, 75th, and 95th percentile values of the distributions.

Image of FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

(Color online) Boxplots of same acoustic parameters shown in Fig. 5, but only using tag records that display both natural and depredation behavior. For each parameter, distributions are shown for deep and shallow depredation states, along with the distributions for the natural foraging states preceding/following a given depredation behavior. The box plots show the 5th, 25th, 50th, 75th, and 95th percentile values of the distributions.

Tables

Generic image for table
TABLE I.

Dive statistics for 2007 and 2009 data. Values are means +/− s.d. over the number of dives Nd considered. N tag corresponds to the number of tag records displaying each behavior. N ind corresponds to the number of individuals displaying each behavior. A p-value is the probability that the distribution is drawn from the same distribution as the natural foraging distribution. Italic p-values indicate the rejection of the null-hypothesis of a common underlying distribution (p < 0.005).

Generic image for table
TABLE II.

Acoustic statistics for 2007 and 2009 data. Values are means +/− s.d. over the number of dives Nd considered. A p-value is the probability that the distribution is drawn from the same distribution as the natural foraging distribution. Italic p-values indicate the rejection of the null-hypothesis of a common underlying distribution (p < 0.005).

Generic image for table
TABLE III.

Dive statistics for 2007 and 2009 data, comparisons within same tag record only. Values are means +/− s.d. over the number of dives Nd considered. N tag corresponds to the number of tag records displaying each behavior. N ind corresponds to the number of individuals displaying each behavior. Ap-value is the probability that the distribution is drawn from the same distribution as the natural foraging distribution. Italic p-values indicate the rejection of the null-hypothesis of a common underlying distribution (p < 0.005).

Generic image for table
TABLE IV.

Acoustic statistics for 2007 and 2009 data, comparisons within same tag record. Values are means +/− s.d. over the number of dives Nd considered. A p-value is the probability that the distribution is drawn from the same distribution as the natural foraging distribution. Italic p-values indicate the rejection of the null-hypothesis of a common underlying distribution (p < 0.005).

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/content/asa/journal/jasa/132/1/10.1121/1.4726005
2012-07-10
2014-04-20
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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Acoustic and diving behavior of sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus) during natural and depredation foraging in the Gulf of Alaska
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/asa/journal/jasa/132/1/10.1121/1.4726005
10.1121/1.4726005
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