banner image
No data available.
Please log in to see this content.
You have no subscription access to this content.
No metrics data to plot.
The attempt to load metrics for this article has failed.
The attempt to plot a graph for these metrics has failed.
Bat wing air pressures may deflect prey structures to provide echo cues for detecting prey in clutter
Rent this article for
View: Figures


Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

Frames 443 (top) and 456 show M. microtis flapping its wings while hovering over a dragonfly. Derived from data (M. microtis 17th March run 3) collected by the ChiRoPing Project (Ref. 12), used with permission.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

Difference image produced by subtracting frames 449 from 451 and displaying the absolute value of the difference. The movements of the bat and the dragonfly wing over 4 ms are evident.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

Model of reflection from static dragonfly wing and deflected wing attached to dragonfly body D. T/R with beam pattern generates acoustic emission and detects echo that follow the path indicated by a solid line from a normally-incident section of at range . Echo produced by a normally-incident section of at r′, indicated with a dashed line, returns later and has a smaller amplitude.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

Experimental configuration. Common Baskettail (Epitheca (Tetragoneuria) cynosura) specimen with 15 cm wing span mounted on a large plastic leaf. Second leaf forms clutter echo at closer range. T/R, air brush A, dragonfly-in-clutter complex consists of clutter leaf C, reflecting wing W, and supporting leaf .

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

Echo waveforms. (A) Echo from planar surface. (B) Echo from complex with in the resting state. Spacing between vertical lines corresponds to a 19 mm range increment. (C) Echo from the complex with maximum deflection. Dashed lines indicate a shift in W echo of 9.6 μs. (D) 80 echoes from the complex over two periods of solenoid actuation with 5 ms effective sampling period.


Article metrics loading...


Full text loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Bat wing air pressures may deflect prey structures to provide echo cues for detecting prey in clutter