Sketch of Tonpilz transducer with head and tail velocities u1 and u2, respectively.
Lumped 1 degree of freedom equivalent circuit for ωrM ⪢ Rl + Rr, with R0 the clamped electrical shunt resistance, Rms the equivalent-stack mechanical series-loss resistance, Rl* the equivalent mechanical mounting loss resistance and Rr* the equivalent radiation resistance.
Comparison of tan δ0 from Eq. (4b) and approx. tan δ/(1−k2).
FEA transducer parameters, with Gr in Siemens.
FEA calculated power (Watts) at fr.
FEA and measured temperatures and increments, Δ, at fr.
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