No data available.
Please log in to see this content.
You have no subscription access to this content.
No metrics data to plot.
The attempt to load metrics for this article has failed.
The attempt to plot a graph for these metrics has failed.
The full text of this article is not currently available.
Averaging underwater noise levels for environmental assessment of shipping
1. P. L. Brockett, M. Hinich, and G. R. Wilson, “ Nonlinear and non-Gaussian ocean noise,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 82(4 ), 1386–1394 (1987).
2. I. H. McQuinn, V. Lesage, D. Carrier, G. Larrivee, Y. Samson, S. Chartrand, R. Michaud, and J. Theriault, “A threatened beluga (Delphinapterus leucas) population in the traffic lane: Vessel-generated noise characteristics of the Saguenay-St. Lawrence Marine Park, Canada,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 130(6), 3661–3673 (2011).
3. L. Hatch, C. Clark, R. Merrick, S. Van Parijs, D. Ponirakis, K. Schwehr, M. Thompson, and D. Wiley, “ Characterizing the relative contributions of large vessels to total ocean noise fields: A case study using the Gerry E. Studds Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary,” Environ. Manage. (NY) 42(5 ), 735–752 (2008).
4. S. E. Parks, I. Urazghildiiev, and C. W. Clark, “ Variability in ambient noise levels and call parameters of North Atlantic right whales in three habitat areas,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 125(2 ), 1230–1239 (2009).
5. European Commission, “Directive 2008/56/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 17 June 2008, Establishing a framework for community action in the field of marine environmental policy (Marine Strategy Framework Directive),” Off. J. European Union L164, 19–40 (2008).
6. M. L. Tasker, M. Amundin, M. André, A. Hawkins, W. Lang, T. Merck, A. Scholik-Schlomer, J. Teilmann, F. Thomsen, S. Werner, and M. Zakharia, “Marine Strategy Framework Directive—Task Group 11: Report Underwater noise and other forms of energy,” Report No. EUR 24341 EN, Joint Research Centre, Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, Luxembourg, 2010.
7. A. J. Van der Graaf, M. A. Ainslie, M. Andre, K. Brensing, J. Dalen, R. P. A. Dekeleng, S. Robinson, M. L. Tasker, F. Thomsen, and S. Werner, “European Marine Strategy Framework Directive—Good environmental status (MSFD GES): Report of the technical subgroup on underwater noise and other forms of energy,” 2012.
8. VENUS Project, http://venus.uvic.ca/ (last viewed 25 May 2012).
9. P. Welch, “ The use of fast Fourier transform for the estimation of power spectra: A method based on time averaging over short, modified periodograms,” IEEE Trans. Audio Electroacoust. 15(2 ), 70–73 (1967).
10. W. T. Ellison, B. L. Southall, C. W. Clark, and A. S. Frankel, “ A new context-based approach to assess marine mammal behavioral responses to anthropogenic sounds,” Conserv. Biol. 26(1 ), 21–28 (2012).
11. B. L. Southall, A. E. Bowles, W. T. Ellison, J. J. Finneran, R. L. Gentry, C. R. Greene, Jr., D. Kastak, D. R. Ketten, J. H. Miller, P. E. Nachtigall, W. J. Richardson, J. A. Thomas, and P. L. Tyack, “ Marine mammal noise exposure criteria: Initial scientific recommendations,” Aquat. Mamm. 33(4 ), 411–521 (2007).
13. N. D. Merchant, M. J. Witt, P. Blondel, B. J. Godley, and G. H. Smith, “ Assessing sound exposure from shipping in coastal waters using a single hydrophone and Automatic Identification System (AIS) data,” Mar. Pollution Bull. 64(7 ), 1320–1329 (2012).
14. Handbook of Acoustical Measurements and Noise Control, 3rd ed., edited by C. M. Harris (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1991).
Article metrics loading...
Rising underwater noise levels from shipping have raised concerns regarding chronic impacts to marine fauna. However, there is a lack of consensus over how to average local shipping noise levels for environmental impact assessment. This paper addresses this issue using 110 days of continuous data recorded in the Strait of Georgia, Canada. Probability densities of 1-s samples in selected 1/3 octave bands were approximately stationary across one-month subsamples. Median and mode levels varied with averaging time. Mean sound pressure levels averaged in linear space, though susceptible to strong bias from outliers, are most relevant to cumulative impact assessment metrics.
Full text loading...
Most read this month