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Moments of click-evoked otoacoustic emissions in human ears: Group delay and spread, instantaneous frequency and bandwidtha)
a)A preliminary form of this research was presented at the 2012 meeting of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology.
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10.1121/1.4757734
/content/asa/journal/jasa/132/5/10.1121/1.4757734
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/asa/journal/jasa/132/5/10.1121/1.4757734
View: Figures

Figures

Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

(Color online) Temporal SNR plotted (subject A) for originally measured CEOAE waveform (“no window” in legend), and waveforms from low-, mid-, and high-frequency bandpass-filtered spectra (line styles in legend). SNR plotted as level (in dB).

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

Cumulative sums of phasors of CEOAE spectrum plotted at three frequencies close to 8 kHz (left) and close to 15 kHz (right). Solid-line circle is circle of radius one; dashed-line circle is a circle ofradius Circle marker at the end of each line segment denotes its CSM across all 32 buffers. Each cumulative sum of phasors labeled by its spectral frequency (in kHz).

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

SSOAE response vs frequency (subject A) in left column (left ear) and right column (right ear) for tests 1 and 2. Row 1: CSM (lines), triangle markers at SSOAE peak frequencies: apex up for SSOAEs in test 1 and down for test 2. (dotted line). Row 2: in test 1 for SSOAEs (solid line) and noise (dotted line). Triangles specify peaks from CSM in row 1. Row 3: in test 2 using similar format to row 2. Row 4: CSM Sum. Upper row of numbers are # of SSOAEs at each frequency for test 1, and lower row for test 2.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

CEOAE data in subject A (left ear) shown in columns 1 and 2 for test 1, and columns 3 and 4 for test 2. Columns 1 and 3 with time abscissaRow 1: Mean CEOAE waveform. Row 2: CSM (left ordinate, solid line) and (dotted line). SNR (right ordinate, dashed line) and (dash-dot line). Row 3: Mean SE of IF (solid line) and IB (dashed line). Mean SE of CEOAE waveform zero-crossing rate () (dash-dot line). Dotted line slope of −1. Columns 2 and 4 with frequency abscissaRow 1: CEOAE spectrum level (solid line). Mean CEOAE signal spectrum level (black line, marker ○); mean CEOAE noise spectrum level (dashed line, marker ×). Triangles placed above SSOAE frequencies as in Fig. 3. Row 2: CSM (left ordinate, solid line) and (dotted line). SNR (right ordinate, dashed line) and (dash-dot line). Row 3: Mean SE of GD (solid line) and GS (dashed line). Dotted line slope of −1.

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

SSOAE normal group data using mean SE. Test 1 data in left column; magnitude difference data from tests 1 and 2 plotted in right column. Left columnRow 1: Number (NF) of SSOAEs per frequency bin. Row 2: CSM Sum. Separate plots for left/right ears slightly displaced along abscissa for clarity. Right columnRow 1: , magnitude difference in NF. Row 2: Sum, magnitude difference in CSM Sum.

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

CEOAE-moment normal group data using mean SE. Left column, time abscissaRow 1: CSM (solid line) and (dotted line) [left ordinate], and SNR (dashed line) and (dashed-dotted line) [right ordinate]. Row 2: IF and IB. # of ears at each time listed at bottom for detected IF and IB. Dotted line slope of −1. Right column, frequency abscissaRow 1: CSM (solid line) and (dotted line) [left ordinate], and SNR (dashed line) and (dashed-dotted line) [right ordinate]. Row 2: GD and GS. # of ears at each frequency listed at bottom for detected GD and GS. Dotted line slope of −1.

Image of FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

Magnitude difference (mean SE) in subset of normal ears () between tests 1 and 2 for CSM and SNR, and CEOAE moments. Left column, time abscissaRow 1: (solid line) and (dotted line) [left ordinate], and (dashed line) and (dashed-dotted line) [right ordinate]. Row 2: and . Dotted line slope of −1. Right column, frequency abscissaRow 1: CSM (solid line) and (dotted line) [left ordinate], and SNR (dashed line) and (dashed-dotted line) [right ordinate]. Row 2: and . Dotted line slope of −1.

Image of FIG. 8.
FIG. 8.

Normalized GD and GS (mean SE) as ratios of GD and GS, respectively, to sample period (units, # periods) over stimulus peSPL range 43–73 dB. Left: Normalized GD from CEOAEs. Fit line of normalized GD for SFOAEs (dotted line) with 90th percentiles of fit (gray shading) (Shera et al., 2010). CEOAE latency at 73 dB peSPL (Goodman et al., 2009). Right: Normalized GS from CEOAEs. (Data displaced horizontally for clarity.)

Image of FIG. 9.
FIG. 9.

Normalized IF and IB (mean SE) as products of IF and IB, respectively, and sample period (units, # cycles) over stimulus peSPL range 43–73 dB. Left: normalized IF from CEOAEs. Mean standard deviation of normalized zero-crossing rate (Kemp, 1978). Right: normalized IB from CEOAEs. (Data displaced horizontally for clarity.)

Image of FIG. 10.
FIG. 10.

Mean IF (dashed line) and inverse GD (solid line) in normal group plotted at stimulus peSPLs of 73 dB (left) and 67 dB (right). Dotted line shows (tonal frequency versus inverse of its period).

Image of FIG. 11.
FIG. 11.

Parametric scatter plots of vs in normal ears at stimulus peSPLs from 73 dB down to 55 dB. Regression model fit (solid line) and 95% CI (dashed lines). Model intercept at  ms and exponent i.e.,

Image of FIG. 12.
FIG. 12.

Parametric scatter plots of vs in normal ears at stimulus peSPLs from 73 dB down to 55 dB. Regression model fit (solid line) and 95% CI (dashed lines) for subset of data with  kHz. Model intercept at  kHz and exponent i.e.,

Image of FIG. 13.
FIG. 13.

AUC at stimulus peSPLs of 73 dB (upper left), 67 dB (upper right) and 61 dB (lower left) using CEOAE predictors CSM(t), CSM(f), SNR(f), and CSM(t,f). As specified by markers at bottom of legend, tops rows in each panel list frequencies at which one of a pair of predictors is more accurate than another (at ).

Image of FIG. 14.
FIG. 14.

CEOAE moments at 73 dB peSPL in sloping SNHL re: normal group. Left column with frequency abscissa—Top: Audiometric HL for sloping-loss groups. Middle: in GD for SNHL re: normal groups. Significant changes () indicated by marker above frequency (top of panel). Similar plotting style used in remaining panels. Bottom: Right column with time abscissa—Middle: Bottom:

Image of FIG. 15.
FIG. 15.

At 73 dB peSPL, the prevalence (in %) for CEOAE detection (left ordinate) for CSM (solid line) and SNR (dashed line) vs HL at octave frequencies 0.5, 1, 2, 4, and 8 kHz. Number of ears per HL bin (in 5 dB bins) also plotted (right ordinate, dotted line, diamond markers). Total # of test ears listed in title. (CSM/SNR data displaced horizontally for clarity.)

Image of FIG. 16.
FIG. 16.

At 73 dB peSPL, normal-group median GD plotted (horizontal dashed line) with median listed to left of line (e.g., 4 periods at 0.5 kHz), and IQR plotted (gray shading). Scatter plot of SNHL ears shows GD vs HL with × marker. Regression model for SNHL ears (solid line) with 95% CI (dotted lines). Text lists regression slope (i.e., ) and

Image of FIG. 17.
FIG. 17.

At 73 dB peSPL, normal-group median GS plotted (horizontal dashed line) with median listed to left of line (e.g., 0.8 periods at 0.5 kHz), and IQR plotted (gray shading). Scatter plot of SNHL ears shows GS vs HL with × marker. Regression model for SNHL ears (solid line) with 95% CI (dotted lines). Text lists regression slope (i.e., ) and

Image of FIG. 18.
FIG. 18.

Audiograms in older males and females from MUSC study (Dubno et al., 2008) and current study (BTNRH).

Image of FIG. 19.
FIG. 19.

Rows 1 and 2—For older females tested at 73 dB peSPL, % prevalence for CEOAE detection (left ordinate) vs HL for CSM (solid line). Number of ears per HL bin (in 5 dB bins) also plotted (right ordinate, dotted line, diamond marker). Title lists audiometric frequency and total # of test ears. Rows 3 and 4 show similar results for older male ears.

Image of FIG. 20.
FIG. 20.

For tests at 73 dB peSPL, normalized GD vs HL of older female ears (marker ×). Regression model (solid line) with 95% CI (dotted lines). Text lists model slope and For comparison, median GD (horizontal dashed line) and IQR (gray shading) of younger normal group are shown; median GD listed (left of line). Five panels show data for older females at octaves 0.5–8 kHz. Lower right panel shows GD vs HL at 2.0 kHz for older males (marker ○).

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/content/asa/journal/jasa/132/5/10.1121/1.4757734
2012-11-08
2014-04-19
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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Moments of click-evoked otoacoustic emissions in human ears: Group delay and spread, instantaneous frequency and bandwidtha)
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/asa/journal/jasa/132/5/10.1121/1.4757734
10.1121/1.4757734
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