1887
banner image
No data available.
Please log in to see this content.
You have no subscription access to this content.
No metrics data to plot.
The attempt to load metrics for this article has failed.
The attempt to plot a graph for these metrics has failed.
Mechanism for generating peaks and notches of head-related transfer functions in the median plane
Rent:
Rent this article for
USD
10.1121/1.4765083
/content/asa/journal/jasa/132/6/10.1121/1.4765083
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/asa/journal/jasa/132/6/10.1121/1.4765083
View: Figures

Figures

Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

A schematized peak–notch pattern of HRTFs in the median plane, based on Figs. 1 and 8 in Raykar et al. (2005). Note that this figure is rotated 90° from its original presentation, and thus the horizontal axis indicates frequency and the vertical axis indicates elevation angle.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

Anatomical nomenclature of the pinna. a: Scaphoid fossa. b: Triangular fossa. c: Cymba conchae (cymba). d: Cavity of concha (concha). e:Ear canal. f: Crus of helix. g: Antihelix. h: Tragus.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

Whole heads of four subjects (upper panel) and the left pinnae segmented from the heads (lower panel). The black circles pointed out with black arrows in the lower panel indicate the source point for calculation of PRTFs and HRTFs.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

(a) HRTFs were calculated at 1.0 m in the median plane. (b) PRTFs were calculated at 0.1 m in the sagittal plane passing through the source point denoted by the white circles in the lower panel of Fig. 3. (c) When PRTFs were calculated, the source point was placed just outside of the blocked meatus and a total of 36 observation points were placed on the circumference of a circle with 0.1 m radius. A Gaussian pulse was input to the source point and pressure changes for all the observation points were obtained in a single computational run. (d) In contrast, when the pressure distribution pattern on the pinna was calculated, the source point was placed at the observation point used in the calculation of PRTFs.

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

(a) Input volume velocity (Gaussian pulse) given by Eq. (1). (b) Calculated pressure changes at 0.1 m from the source point in free space. (c) Frequency characteristics of pressure changes of (b).

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

(Color online) HRTFs and PRTFs of four subjects. The scale bars indicate the log-power in dB.

Image of FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

Peak patterns on PRTFs (left) and notch patterns on PRTFs (right). The scale bars indicate the log-power in dB. Note that the dark regions in panels (a), (c), (e), and (g) indicate higher log-power spectral amplitudes of PRTFs, while the dark regions in panels (b), (d), (f), and (h) indicate lower log-power spectral amplitude of PRTFs.

Image of FIG. 8.
FIG. 8.

The upper panel shows PRTFs for M2 below 12 kHz to indicate the frequency and each elevation angle chosen for the lower panel. The scale bar indicates the log-power in dB. The lower panel indicates the distribution patterns of pressure nodes and anti-nodes at the first, second, and third normal modes of the pinna. Arrows represent the source direction.

Image of FIG. 9.
FIG. 9.

The upper panel shows PRTFs for M2 below 12 kHz to indicate the frequency and each elevation angle chosen for the lower panels. The scale bar indicates the log-power in dB. The lower panels indicate the three types of distribution patterns of pressure nodes and anti-nodes on the pinna (see the text). Arrows represent the source direction.

Image of FIG. 10.
FIG. 10.

Notch patterns of PRTFs of all four subjects, indicating the three types of distribution patterns of pressure nodes and anti-nodes on the pinna (see the text) for each N1 trajectory. The scale bars indicate the log-power in dB.

Image of FIG. 11.
FIG. 11.

The mechanisms by which the propagating waves induce a node in the concha for the three types of distribution patterns of pressure nodes and anti-nodes on the pinna of M2, as shown in Fig. 9.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/asa/journal/jasa/132/6/10.1121/1.4765083
2012-12-06
2014-04-18
Loading

Full text loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Mechanism for generating peaks and notches of head-related transfer functions in the median plane
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/asa/journal/jasa/132/6/10.1121/1.4765083
10.1121/1.4765083
SEARCH_EXPAND_ITEM