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Effects of spatial and temporal integration of a single early reflection on speech intelligibilitya)
a)A part of this study was presented at Forum Acusticum 2011, 17 June–1 July, Aalborg, Denmark.
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10.1121/1.4768880
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    Affiliations:
    1 Medical Physics, Institute of Physics, Carl-von-Ossietzky University Oldenburg, D-26111 Oldenburg, Germany
    2 Project Group Hearing, Speech and Audio Technology, Fraunhofer Institute for Digital Media Technology IDMT, Marie-Curie-Straße 2, D-26129 Oldenburg, Germany
    3 Medical Physics, Institute of Physics, Carl-von-Ossietzky University Oldenburg, D-26111 Oldenburg, Germany
    4 Signal Processing Group, Institute of Physics, Carl-von-Ossietzky University Oldenburg, D-26111 Oldenburg, Germany
    5 Medical Physics, Institute of Physics, Carl-von-Ossietzky University Oldenburg, D-26111 Oldenburg, Germany
    b) Author to whom correspondence should be addressed. Electronic mail: anna.warzybok@uni-oldenburg.de
    c) Also at Project Group Hearing, Speech and Audio Technology, Fraunhofer Institute for Digital Media Technology IDMT, Marie-Curie-Str. 2, D-26129 Oldenburg, Germany.
    J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 133, 269 (2013); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.4768880
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Figures

Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

Spatial configurations of the sources used in the different experiments. The direct sound of the speech material was always presented frontally (S 0); noise was also presented frontally (N 0), laterally (N 135), or diffusely (ND , not shown). Black speakers indicate diotic reflections (R 0 and R 180), dark gray speakers indicate a reflection from the same side as the lateral noise source (R 45, R 90, and R 135), and light gray speakers indicate a reflection from the opposite direction (R 225, R 270, and R 315). The azimuth of the single reflection varied in the experiments in steps of 45°.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

Mean SRTs and interindividual standard deviations measured with frontally presented direct speech, noise, and reflection of the same amplitude as a direct sound (AR  = 1) and of reduced amplitude (AR  = 0.3). Right: Mean SRTs and corresponding standard deviation for diotic speech condition (S 0 R 0) obtained in noise with (N 0, R ) and without (N 0) speech reflection.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

Mean SRTs and interindividual standard deviations as a function of delay of a frontal reflection of the speech signal in diotic noise (circles), laterally located noise (squares), and diffuse noise (triangles). Direct soundwas presented frontally. Bottom: Mean binaural intelligibility level differences for laterally located (squares) and diffuse noise (triangles) as a function of delay of the reflection.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

Mean SRTs and standard deviations as a function of delay of a reflection of the speech signal at an azimuth of 45° in laterally located noise (squares connected with a solid line) and diffuse noise (triangles connected with a solid line). The direct sound was presented frontally. Dashed, gray curves represent data measured with a frontal reflection (Fig. 2 ). Bottom: Differences in SRT between a frontal and a lateral reflection for lateral (squares) and diffuse noise (triangles) as a function of delay of the reflection.

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

SRTs measured in Expt. VI (frontal speech, diffuse noise, different reflection azimuths). Top panel: SRTs as a function of reflection delay. Black symbols connected with a solid line indicate a diotic speech signal, dark gray symbols connected with dotted lines indicate a reflection azimuth at the right side of the listeners' head, and light gray symbols connected with dashed lines indicate a reflection from the left side. For clarity, curves are slightly shifted horizontally. Bottom panel: SRTs as a function of azimuthal angle. Circles connected with a solid, black line indicate data for a reflection delay of 10 ms, squares connected with a dark gray line show threshold for a delay of 50 ms, and triangles connected with a light gray solid line indicate data for a delay of 200 ms.

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

Same data representation as in Fig. 5 , but for lateral noise instead of diffuse noise. The arrow at an azimuth of 135° indicates the direction of the noise source.

Tables

Generic image for table
TABLE I.

Experimental parameters used in the different experiments of this study: speech azimuth (ϕS ), reflection amplitude relative to the direct sound (Ar ), reflection azimuth (ϕR ), noise azimuth (ϕN ), and delay between direct sound and reflection (Δt). D denotes diffuse characteristics.

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2013-01-03
2014-04-24
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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Effects of spatial and temporal integration of a single early reflection on speech intelligibilitya)
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/asa/journal/jasa/133/1/10.1121/1.4768880
10.1121/1.4768880
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