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The binaural click-evoked auditory brainstem response of the California sea lion ( Zalophus californianus )
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10.1121/1.4770253
/content/asa/journal/jasa/133/1/10.1121/1.4770253
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/asa/journal/jasa/133/1/10.1121/1.4770253

Figures

Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

The broadband click stimulus used to elicit California sea lion ABRs. (A) The 100 -μs electrical pulse. The polarity of the pulse was alternated on successive epochs to reduce electrical artifacts in the recordings. (B) Representative waveform of the click recorded near the subjects' pinna. (C) Spectrum of the stimulus.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

The click-evoked ABR of six California sea lion subjects (the ABRs of subject MBI are not shown, see text). Each trace is the average of 500 individual recording epochs at the same stimulus intensity of 100 dB peak-to-peak equivalent SPL. Characteristic positive and negative waves are labeled using Arabic numerals. The beginning of each trace coincides with the onset of the click. Relative positivity at the vertex electrode is plotted upwards. The mean amplitudes and latencies of each individual's waves are given in Tables I III .

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

Recordings of click-evoked ABRs in a sub-adult male California sea lion (BUS) at a variety of stimulus levels. Two records are shown for each stimulus level. Each record is the average of 500 individual recording epochs. At the highest levels, the characteristic waves of the ABR are clearly visible. Wave amplitudes decrease and latencies increase with decreasing stimulus level, until only P6 is visible. The arrow indicates threshold, defined as the last visually detectable response.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

Mean latency of ABR wave P6 as a function of stimulus level for three California sea lions. Measurements for each subject comprised the average of 500 epochs.

Tables

Generic image for table
TABLE I.

Individual subject wave amplitudes (in μV) and mean values for characteristic waves comprising the binaural click-evoked ABRs of six California sea lions. The mean intra-subject amplitude difference (IAD) is the mean difference in amplitudes between the two 500-epoch records for each subject. Standard deviations are given in parentheses. Age classes of the subjects are given as S = sub-adult, A = adult.

Generic image for table
TABLE II.

Individual subject wave latencies (in ms) and mean values for characteristic positive waves comprising the binaural click-evoked ABRs of six California sea lions. The mean intra-subject latency difference (ILD) is the mean difference in amplitudes between the two 500-epoch records for each subject. Standard deviations are given in parentheses. Age classes of the subjects are given as S = sub-adult, A = adult.

Generic image for table
TABLE III.

Individual subject wave latencies (in ms) and mean values for characteristic negative waves comprising the binaural click-evoked ABRs of six California sea lions. The mean intra-subject latency difference (ILD) is the mean difference in latencies between the two 500-epoch records for each subject. Standard deviations are given in parentheses. Age classes of the subjects are given as S = sub-adult, A = adult.

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/content/asa/journal/jasa/133/1/10.1121/1.4770253
2013-01-03
2014-04-17
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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: The binaural click-evoked auditory brainstem response of the California sea lion (Zalophus californianus)
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/asa/journal/jasa/133/1/10.1121/1.4770253
10.1121/1.4770253
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