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Auditory brainstem responses and auditory thresholds in woodpeckers
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Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

Comparison of ABR waveforms for 3 adult woodpeckers, one from each species, in response to the click stimulus at 85 dB pSPL. Here 0 ms equals stimulus onset; the arrow indicates when sound reaches the outer ear. In all 3 species, ABR waveforms showed similar morphology, with at least 2 prominent peaks (p1, p2), as is typical of other birds tested to date.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

(A) Latency and (B) amplitude in response to the click stimulus forthe 3 woodpecker species compared with a small passerine, the canary (canary data from Brittan-Powell et al., 2010 ). (A) For all birds, latency to wave 1 decreased as stimulus level (intensity) increased and values were similar across species. (B) Amplitude of wave 1 varied among the woodpecker species, especially at higher stimulus levels, though these results should be taken with caution due to the small sample sizes involved.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

ABR audiograms (mean +/− SE) for the 3 species of woodpeckers tested (number of individuals listed in parentheses).

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

Average ABR audiogram for all 3 woodpecker species (mean +/− SE) as a comparison with 2 other species of birds whose ABR audiograms were obtained using the same stimuli and set up (budgerigars: Brittan-Powell et al., 2002 ; canaries: Brittan-Powell et al., 2010 ).


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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Auditory brainstem responses and auditory thresholds in woodpeckers