Modeling and optimization of an acoustic diode based on micro-bubble nonlinearity
(Color online) Schematic illustration of the acoustic diode.
Allocations of the grid points and the variable assignments in temporal and spatial domains.
(Color online) Size distributions of the utilized micro-bubble solutions. The hollow triangles are the data of SonoVue® from literature, the solid line is the corresponding fitted curve (denoted as “regular” distribution), and the dashed line is a hypothetical “narrow” distribution.
(Color online) The frequency dependent transmission coefficients of the water-glass SLs with the periodicity number N SL = 2 (the solid line), 4 (the dashed line), and 10 (the dash-dot line).
(Color online) The SHW pressure amplitude (normalized to 5 kPa) as a function of the bubble radius. κs = 15 × 10−9 N, χ = 1 N/m, f 0 = 1.05 MHz, C dilute = 0.05 V/V%. The values corresponding to utilizing a “regular” and “narrow” size distribution are also marked in the figure with dashed lines.
(Color online) SHW pressure amplitude (normalized to 5 kPa) as a function of shell elasticity and viscosity. f 0 = 1.05 MHz, C dilute = 0.05 V/V%, the “regular” bubble size distribution is applied.
(Color online) (A), (B), and (C) are the energy transmission properties of the AD devices utilized in Ref. 2 corresponding to bubble concentrations of 0.025, 0.05, and 0.1 V/V%, respectively. (D) shows the SHW amplitude of the optimized AD model (normalized to 5 kPa) as a function of bubble concentration. f 0 = 1.05 MHz, χ = 0.55 N/m, and κs = 7.2 × 10−9 N. The three points represent the three cases with the bubble concentrations of 0.025, 0.05, and 0.1 V/V%, respectively.
(Color online) (A) is the frequency dependent energy transmission coefficient of the optimized AD; (B) compares the rectification ratio between the optimized AD and that utilized in Ref. 2 with a bubble concentration of 0.05 V/V%. [The solid line refers to the “positive” (+) incidence, the dashed line corresponds to the “negative” (−) incidence.]
Parameters used in FDTD simulations.
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