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Voice quality and tone identification in White Hmong
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10.1121/1.4773259
/content/asa/journal/jasa/133/2/10.1121/1.4773259
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/asa/journal/jasa/133/2/10.1121/1.4773259

Figures

Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

Schematic F0 contours for the three sets of manipulations performed on the original breathy-toned stimuli. The upward facing arrow indicates the direction of F0.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

Schematic F0 contours for the two sets of manipulations performed on (a) the original low modal-toned stimuli, and (b) the original creaky-toned stimuli. The upward-facing arrow indicates increasing F0, and the jagged lines represent creaky phonation.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

(Color online) (a) Proportion “breathy-toned” responses for breathy stimuli as a function of start of F0 fall. (b) Proportion “creaky-toned” responses as a function of start of F0 fall, for short original low modal (22) and low-falling creaky (21) tokens. Chance is indicated at 0.14. Best-fit regression lines are shown for (a) proportion breathy response as a function of F0 fall (excluding subject-explained variance), and (b) for shortened modal (grey line) and short creaky (black line) stimuli. The starting value of the F0 fall is weakly correlated with proportion “breathy-toned” responses. For “creaky-toned” responses, F0 fall shows moderate to high correlations with proportion “creaky-toned” responses for modal and creaky stimuli, as indicated by Pearson's values. Note that these correlations are not derived from the logistic mixed-effects models.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

(Color online) Schematics of the spectral source manipulations, with only the five harmonic anchors (H1, H2, H4, 2 kHz, and 5 kHz) represented by vertical lines. The four component slopes of the source spectrum model are shown by dotted lines. In condition 1 (a), H1–H2 varied by increasing the amplitude of H1. In condition 2 (b), H1–H2 and H2–H4 covaried by decreasing the amplitude of H2. In condition 3 (c), H2–H4 and H4–2 kHz covaried by decreasing the amplitude of H4. Manipulations are represented by dashed lines.

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

Proportion of “breathy-toned” responses as a function of (a) H1–H2 in conditions 1 (H1–H2 varying) and 2 (H1–H2 and H2–H4 covarying), (b) H2–H4 in conditions 2 and 3 (H1–H2 held constant, H2–H4 and H4–2 kHz covarying). Best-fit regression lines for proportion of “breathy-toned” responses as a function of changes to (a) H1–H2 and (b) H2–H4 are included, excluding subject-explained variance. H1–H2 manipulations in condition 1 but not in condition 2 are highly correlated with a higher proportion of “breathy-toned” responses (as indicated by the values of Pearson's ). H2–H4 manipulations in condition 3 but not in condition 2 are highly correlated with a higher proportion of “breathy-toned” responses. Note that these correlations are not derived from the logistic mixed-effects models.

Tables

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TABLE I.

Overview of White Hmong tones, from Esposito (2012) .

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TABLE II.

Mean values of H1*–H2*, H1*–A1* (asterisks indicate that the measures are corrected for formant frequencies and bandwidths), and HNR in dB (standard deviations in parentheses) for high-falling breathy vs modal and low creaky vs low modal stimuli, across all pitch manipulations.

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TABLE III.

Fixed-effects results of logistic model predicting “breathy-toned” responses.

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TABLE IV.

Fixed-effects results of logistic model predicting “creaky-toned” responses.

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TABLE V.

Summary of the five conditions in experiment 2. Arrows indicate an increase (↑) or decrease (↓) for a given component. An unmentioned component means it was held constant in that condition.

Generic image for table
TABLE VI.

Fixed-effects results of logistic model predicting “breathy-toned” responses in experiment 2.

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TABLE VII.

Fixed-effects results of logistic model predicting “/ɔ/ word” responses in experiment 2.

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/content/asa/journal/jasa/133/2/10.1121/1.4773259
2013-01-30
2014-04-25
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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Voice quality and tone identification in White Hmong
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/asa/journal/jasa/133/2/10.1121/1.4773259
10.1121/1.4773259
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