Paralinguistic mechanisms of production in human “beatboxing”: A real-time magnetic resonance imaging study
Articulation of a “punchy” kick drum effect as an affricated labial ejective . Frame 92: starting posture; f97: lingual lowering, velic closure; f98: fully lowered larynx, glottalic closure; f100: rapid laryngeal raising accompanied by lingual raising; f101: glottis remains closed during laryngeal raising; f103: glottal abduction; final lingual posture remains lowered.
Articulation of a “thud” kick drum effect as an bilabial ejective [p' ]. Frame 84: starting posture; f89: glottal lowering, lingual retraction; f93: fully lowered larynx, sealing of glottalic, velic and labial ports; f95: rapid laryngeal raising accompanied by lingual raising; f97: glottis remains closed during laryngeal raising and lingual advancement; f98: final lingual posture raised and advanced.
Articulation of an “808” kick drum effect as an bilabial ejective . Frame 75: starting posture; f78: lingual lowering, velic closure; f80: fully lowered larynx, glottalic and labial closure; f82: rapid laryngeal raising, with tongue remaining retracted; f83: glottis remains closed during laryngeal raising; f87: glottal abduction; final lingual posture midhigh and back.
Articulation of a rim shot effect as a dorsal ejective [k']. Frame 80: dorsal closure; f83: laryngeal lowering, velic raising; f84: velic closure, larynx fully lowered; f86: glottal closure; f87: rapid laryngeal raising; f90: glottis remains closed through completion of ejective and release of dorsal constriction.
Articulation of a “side K” rim shot effect as a lateral click . Frame 283: starting posture; f286: lingual raising and advancement towards palate; f289: completion of lingual seal between alveolar ridge and soft palate; f290: beginning of lingual retraction to initiate rarefaction of palatal cavity; f291: lateral influx produced by lowering of tongue body while retaining anterior and posterior lingual seals; f293: final lingual posture. Note that the velum remains lowered throughout click production.
Articulation of a rim shot effect as an alveolar click . Frame 13: starting posture; f15: lingual raising and advancement towards palate; f17: completion of lingual seal between alveolar ridge and soft palate; f20–22: rarefaction of palatal cavity; f22: final lingual posture after alveolar release. Note that the velum remains lowered throughout click production.
Articulation of a “clap” snare drum effect as a labialized dental click . Frame 390: tongue pressed into palate; f391–392: initiation of downward lingual motion; f393: rarefaction of palatal cavity; f394–395: dental-alveolar influx resulting from coronal lenition while retaining posterior lingual seal; Note that the velum remains lowered throughout click production.
Articulation of an “open K” hi-hat [ksː]. Frame 205: initial lingual posture; f206–209: dorsal stop production; f209–211: coronal fricative production.
Articulation of an “closed kiss” hi-hat effect . Frame 94: initial lingual posture; f98: constriction formed against teeth, alveolar ridge and hard palate; f99–101: partial glottal constriction, lowering of tongue and larynx; f102: final lingual posture.
Broad transcription of beatboxing performance using standard percussion notation: repeated one-bar, two-element groove entitled “Audio 2.” Phonetic realization of each percussion element is indicated beneath each voice in the score using broad transcription IPA “lyrics.”
Fine transcription of beatboxing groove: two-bar, three-element groove entitled “Tried by Twelve” (88 b.p.m.). Detailed mechanisms of production are indicated for each percussion element—“open hat” [ts], “no mesh snare” [p'fː], and “808 kick” [p']—using fine transcription IPA lyrics.
Musical classification and phonetic characterizatioan of beatboxing effects in the repertoire of the study subject.
Metrical structure and phonetic composition of four beatboxing sequences (grooves) demonstrated by the subject.
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