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Effects of fatiguing tone frequency on temporary threshold shift in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus)
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Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

Audiograms for the dolphins BLU and TYH. The solid lines are cubic spline fits to the threshold values. A representative example of the mean ambient noise pressure spectral density levels is also shown.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

Distributions of the difference between the false alarm rates measured during pre-and post-exposure threshold testing. The difference is defined as the post-exposure false alarm rate minus the pre-exposure rate.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

The growth of TTS4 at each exposure frequency. Circles, solid lines: BLU; triangles, dashed lines: TYH; C: control sessions. The lines show the best fits of Eq. (1) to the data (see Table II ). The open symbols show the mean TTS4 (±1 SD) from the control sessions. All exposures were 16-s in duration.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

(a) “Onset TTS” exposure levels, based on the SPL (left ordinate) and SEL (right ordinate) required to induce a TTS4 of 6 dB. The auditory thresholds, in dB SPL (left ordinate), are also shown for comparison. BLU: solid circles; TYH: open circles. (b) Relative susceptibility values from the present study (symbols) compared to dolphin weighting functions derived from equal loudness contours measured in the dolphin TYH (lines; Finneran and Schlundt, 2011 ).

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

Recovery from TTS at each exposure frequency. BLU: solid circles; TYH: solid triangles. The recovery data with TTS4 ≥ 6 dB were fit with a modified exponential function ( Patuzzi, 1998 ).

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

Best-fit values of the recovery function parameters n 1 and n 2 as functions of TTS4 [see Eqs. (2) and (3) ]. The lines are linear fits to the parameter values, with the two smallest values of n 1 and largest values of n 2, which corresponded to the two largest shifts at 28.3 kHz, excluded.


Generic image for table

Test frequencies, number of controls and exposures, and exposure SPL range for each subject.

Generic image for table

Best-fit parameters for Eq. (1) fit to TTS4 growth data. a,b = fitting parameters,  = adjusted coefficient of determination, and n = number of samples.


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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Effects of fatiguing tone frequency on temporary threshold shift in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus)