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Scattering from suspended sediments having different and mixed mineralogical compositions: Comparison of laboratory measurements and theoretical predictions
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10.1121/1.4788985
/content/asa/journal/jasa/133/3/10.1121/1.4788985
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/asa/journal/jasa/133/3/10.1121/1.4788985

Figures

Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

SEMs of the mineral sands examined, showing (a) quartz, (b) shell, (c) magnetite, and (d) muscovite mica. The scale bar in each SEM depicts 500 μm.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

Particle size distributions by mass [(a) and (b)] and PDF spectra [(c) and (d)] for mixed sediments i and ii, respectively. The mass distributions of the constituent mineral sands and the total mass distribution (—) are shown in (a) and (b). The single mineral (SM) and mixed sediment (MS) PDFs were calculated following Eqs. (16) and (19) , respectively in (c) and (d).

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

(Color online) The sediment tower, showing the ABS transducers, mixing assemblage, and pumps.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

Comparison of measurements of χ with the sphere model predictions of χS (—) obtained using Eq. (4) for each mineral sand as labeled. The results of fitting the MSMs to the experimental data following Schaafsma and Hay (1997) , denoted MSM-1 (···), and following Thorne and Buckingham (2004) , denoted MSM-2 (– – –), are also shown.

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

Comparison of measurements of f with the sphere model predictions of fS (—) obtained using Eq. (5) , for each mineral sand as labeled. Two versions of the measurements of f are presented, those obtained by modeling χ using MSM-1 ( Schaafsma and Hay, 1997 ) in (a)–(d), and those obtained by modeling χ using MSM-2 ( Thorne and Buckingham, 2004 ) in (e)–(h). The results of applying each MSM to the predictions of fS are also shown for MSM-1 (···), MSM-2 (– – –), and MSM-3 (-.-).

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

Results of fitting the sphere model predictions of fS (—) to the experimental data, following Eq. (8) for MSM-1 (···), for each mineral sand as labeled.

Image of FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

Variation of the weighted mean form function, fWM , with x for mixed sediment ii, calculated using Eq. (21) , at 2 MHz (◻) and 4 MHz (•). For comparison, the modified sphere models (MSM-2) for the three minerals in the mixture, quartz (—), shell (···), and magnetite (– – –), are also shown.

Image of FIG. 8.
FIG. 8.

Measurements of χ 0 [(a) and (b)] and f 0 [(c) and (d)] obtained from mixed sediments i and ii, respectively. Theoretical predictions of ensemble scattering following the mixed sediment (MS) method (—) and single mineral (SM) method (···) are also shown. The envelope of the intrinsic scattering properties for the constituent minerals in each mixture is shown by the shaded area.

Tables

Generic image for table
TABLE I.

Mean particle aspect ratio, ar , number of particles measured, Sn , and physical characteristics of each mineral sand examined. S.E. denotes the standard error about the mean, and ε is the uncertainty associated with the laboratory volume displacement measurements.

Generic image for table
TABLE II.

Summary of grain size distribution statistics for each mixed sediment (MS) shown in Fig. 2 . See text for definition of symbols.

Generic image for table
TABLE III.

Normalized rms differences, expressed as percentages, between the theoretical predictions and laboratory measurements of χ and f, for each mineral sand and each MSM examined (defined in Secs. II B and IV B ).

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/content/asa/journal/jasa/133/3/10.1121/1.4788985
2013-03-06
2014-04-21
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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Scattering from suspended sediments having different and mixed mineralogical compositions: Comparison of laboratory measurements and theoretical predictions
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/asa/journal/jasa/133/3/10.1121/1.4788985
10.1121/1.4788985
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